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23/10/2014 06:06:26 am

Welcome to www.napess.org the National Association of Physical Education and Sports Science official website.
  Articles

HISTORY OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION IN INDIA DURING PRE AND POST INDEPENDENCE

PRE INDEPENDENCE ERA:

For the promotion of Physical Education, following steps were taken by the Government and other Organisations during the Pre Independence Period.


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1882

 

For the first time it was the Indian Education Organization that recommended Physical Training be Promoted in the interest of youth in each class of School.

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1884

 

 

The question of making Physical Education as a compulsory subject has considered. What even the Programme of Physical Education existed in Pre Independence days, it was carried on by the ex-service men men employed by school / college authorities.

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1914

 

Vidya Borthers founded Sir Hanuman Vyayam Prasarak Mandal, Amaravathi, basically to serve the course of Physical Education in India .

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1920

 

 

 

The outstanding development of scientific Physical Education in India in Pre-Independence days goes to the Y.M.C.A. college of Physical Education , Madras founded in 1920 by H. C. Buck. Since its inception this college has been working tirelessly and selflessly to promote and systematize Physical Education in India .

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1921

Boys Scout Association of India was formed

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1924

 

 

Hanuman Vyayam Prasarak Mandal, Amaravathi, started a five week summer course for youngmen and women in Indigenous  activities. A youth completing course was rounded Vyayam Visharad

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1927

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Indian Olympic Association (I.O.A) was formed with the efforts of Dr. A. G. Noehren and Mr. H. C. Buck. Mr. Sorabti Tata was its first President with Dr. D. G. Noehren it secretary. Since Indian Olympic Association has been functioning in India and is affiliated with International Olympic Committee (I.O.A). This Association started to promote and encourage Physical, Manual and Cultural Educations of youth of the Nation for the development of Character, good health and good citizenship, also to enforce all rules and regulations of International Olympic Committee and to educate the Public of the Country as to the value of amatensism in sports.

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1931

Government College of Physical Education, Hyderabad

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1938

 

Training Institute of Physical Education , Kandivali ( Bombay ). The three Institutions were established to promote systematic, scientific Physical Education courses in India

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1947

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

POST INDEPENDENCE ERA

The Central Government retained the vital affairs of Education, by coordinating and formulating the directives to the states keeping in view the national objectives to be achieved. (Thousands of social forces started operating in the life of an Indian Citizen. As a result in memorable schools, colleges and many new Universities case into existence to give impetus to the course of Education, on sure industry development, to helved a free revolution and to raise the thousands of living of millions of country men).

It is out of these phenomenal charges that Physical Education has been considered part and parcel of school education programme. A considerable number of Institutions for training teachers for Physical Education have come up ever since independence. New schemes have been put into operations to boost up the standard of sports and Health standards of people.

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1948

 

National Credit Corps (NCC) and Auxiliary Credit Corps (ACC) at school and college levels were introduced.

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1948

Asian Games Committee Constituted.

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1950

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Central Advisory Board of Physical Education and Recreation was setup (CABPER): In the light of the recommendations of the Board the Union Ministry of Education has taken a number of steps in the field such as development training of leaders in Physical Education, Institution of Scholarship for research in Physical Education, conduct of National Physical Efficiency Drive, conduct of seminar on Physical Education, giving financial assistance to the colleges of Physical Education, giving directions to the state governments for affecting organization of Physical Education in their respective states.

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1953

 

 

 

In 1953 Government of India introduced the Rajkumari Coaching Scheme for Games and Sports with the object of training good athletes and sportsmen. The scheme received wide popularity since famous players like Major. Dhayan Chand, Dr. Ram Singh were working under this scheme.

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1954

 

 

 

 

All India Council of Sports, School Games Federation of India, National Discipline Scheme (NDS) were established with the aim to regularize the promotions of the sports and working of sports bodies. To make the youth healthy in mind and body and instill in them a sense of patriotism, self reliance, tolerance and self-sacrifice. To develop human values and to build in them a desire to serve the country and humanity at laye.

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1956

A National Syllabus of Physical Activities was formed.

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1957

 

 

 

With the recommendation of CABPER, Laxmi Bai National college of Physical Education at Gwalior (M.P.) was established. This is the only Physical Education College being sum by Central Government. This institute apart Research Programmes, training and teaching for Physical Education personals.

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1958

 

 

Government of India set up on Adhoc enquiry Committee on Games and sports to suggest ways and means to improve the standards of Indian competitions in all games and sports.

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1959

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

In 1959, Government of India appointed a Co-ordination Committee, under the chairmanship of Dr. Hirdya Math Kunzuru, to examining the various schemes for Physical Education, recreation, character building and discipline operating in Educational Institutions, and to recommend measure for the proper Co-ordination.

 

The national Physical Efficiency Drive was launched by the Union Ministry of Education in 1959-69. The plan consisted of certain items of Physical Efficiency tests which prescribed standards for achievement. It was hoped that drive would arouse the interest of young and old men and women to check their performance abilities and thus stimulate their keen ness for Physical Fitness.  

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1961

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

As a follow up action to the recommendations of the Adhoc-Enquiry Committee of 1958 the Netaji Subhash National Institute of Sports was established by the Government of India in 1961 at state Bagh, Palance, Patiala stressing to produce Coaches of high caliber in various games.

Kaul Kapoor Committee: This committee submitted recommendation on 1961 starting that Physical Education should be considered as a part of general education in schools and colleges. It should be one of the subjects in the Universities for graduates.

The Raj Kumari Coaching Scheme ceased to function on 18th October 1961. It has been merged after comes like (MS) in the NIS .

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1963

 

 

 

 

 

The Kunzur Committee studied the prevailing conditions in other countries, consulted expects including vice-chancellors of convenities, Educational administrations, Physical Educationists etc. and submitted report. The report is probably first even authorititative assessment of Physical Education in this country. The committee admitted that Physical Education is one of the important basis on which should rest school and colleges for improving the nations physique.

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1965

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The state education secretaries and direction of public instruction met in New Delhi in February and April 1965, and decided unanimously to introduce the National Fitness Corps (NFC) on a compulsory basis in all Universities, college and high and higher secondary schools in the country. With this ACC has managed with NCC & MDS has ended with the function of HFC.

NFC Time table allotment has drawn up and inculcated throughout all the educational institutions in the country. The colleges of Physical Education in the country were asked to reformulate their syllabus for various training classes, so that teachers who could handle NFC programme could be produced.

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1984

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sports authority of India has been established at Delhi . SAI comes forward to establish sports hostel in each state to encourage the players by generating scholarship and coaching. The University Education Commission (1948-49) felt that the all round development of the individual is facilitated through a Various Commissions balance programme of education which shall necessarily include Physical Education and Physical Education are complementary to each other and must be integrated in such a may as to form an organic whole. After Independence in India , much emphasis has been given on Physical Education. Recognising the importance of Physical Education in schools, colleges and universities. The secondary education commission (1952 53) (Mandaliar Commission) said:

Unless Physical Education is accepted as an integral part of Education and the Educational authorities recognize its need in all schools, the youth of the country which form its most valuable assets will never be able to pull their weight in national welfare.

The Indian Education Commission (1964 66) (Kothari Commission) Emphasized the importance of Physical Education in the following words:

It must be emphasized that such education contributes not only to Physical fitness but also to Physical Efficiency, mental alertness and the development of certain qualities like perseverance, team spirit, leadership, obedience, to rules, moderation in victory and balance in defeat.

A bill was passed in the parliament which was known as National Policy of Education 1986. Emphasized the importance of Physical Education in following ways.

Sports and Physical Educations are an integral part of the learning process, and will be included in the evaluation of performance. A Nation-wide infrastructure for Physical Education, Sports and games will be built into the educational edifice. The infrastructure will consists of play fields, equipment, coaches and teachers of Physical Education as part of the school improvement programme. Available open spaces in urban areas will be reserved for play grounds, if necessary by legislation, effects will be made to established sports Institution and hostels where specialized attention will be given to sports activities and sports related studies, along with normal education. Appropriate encouragement will be given to those talented in games and sports. The stress will be laid on indigenous traditional games. As a system which promotes an integrated duo of body and mind. Yoga will revive special authentic effects will be made to introduce Yoga in all schools, and to this and, it will be introduce in teacher training courses. The MPE has recommended for a minimum of 10 periods per week for Physical Education activities in low primary and upper primary stages, and 7 periods per week at the second stage.

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1988

 

 

 

 

 

 

The NCERT developed the national curriculum for elementary and secondary educations in 1988 to reflect the postulates of the NPE and the programme of Action, 1986. The main thrust of this exercise was to provide for the national corecurriculum in the school syllabi as postulated in the national policy and to integrate Physical Education with the academic programme of the schools. The core curriculum states that Health and Physical Education and sports should be integral part of learning process and be included as the evaluation of performance.

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1992

The above policy has been reiterated in the National Policy of Education in 1992.

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1992

 

 

NCERT put formed a revised curriculum for school education and in 1992, and its revised edition is Nov. 2000. under the title National Curriculum Frame work for School Education. In this curriculum include. Health and Physical Education as one of the core subjects in all levels of school educations. This curriculum was to be revived by NCERT, every five years, therefore, a new edition should be made available in the year 2005.

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A National Advisory Committee was setup by MHRD, on 1993. The committee report published in 1993 was reprinted in 2004 under the title Learning Without Bonded. This has been discussed in the Parliament. The chairmen of the committee has Prof. Yashpal.

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CONCLUSION: Thus the Physical Education is made to be an ongoing continuous process without a break with participation by the greater number. This is what is required in an Country . . . . A mass fitness movement, a spread of sports culture. With all what is said and done, sports management is primarily a questions of raising over young people by means of appropriate education and judicious measures.

 

Various Values Developed Through Physical Education:

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YEAR

COMMISSION

Inculcation of Values

NAPESS 1952 Committee on National College of Physical Education and Recreation

Physiological Values, Psychological Values

NAPESS 1959 Committee for Coordination and integration of schemes operating in the field of Physical Education, Recreation and youth welfare. Chairman Dr. Hriday Nath Kunzun.

Character building discipline, Recreational values

NAPESS 1965 Committee on Physical Education Chairman Dr. C. D. Deshmukh

National Character Building

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- Compiled by

Dr. P. Ravi Kumar

     

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