The NAPESS Journal of Physical Education & Sports Science, Under the aegis of NAPESS
ISSN 2229 – 7049 NAPESS – Journal Of Physical Education And Sports Science (Print)
ISSN 2229 – 7316 NAPESS – Journal Of Physical Education And Sports Science (Online)
12008 Vol: 1 Issue: 2008

Influence of Sports Participation on Social Aspects of India

Author: S Muniraju —  Co-Author: Dr. Sundar Raj Urs —  Date: 2008-11-01

Abstract:

Sports is more than a fashion, it is a new reality. Today sports have gained considerable, social, economical and political importance

It is not important to make an individual just a literate, but he should be made more human, social and resourceful through proper education. Experiences gained through participation in sports like sympathy, co-operation, responsibility, abiding to rules & regulation help in gaining social values such as tolerance, acceptance, team spirit, sportsmanship etc. Participation in sports activities removes the inferiority complex in an individual and makes him move with the main stream of society. Through this type of involvement the social evils like untouchability, discrimination of caste, creed, color, race & religion will be overlooked.

The present study is an attempt to know the influence of sports participation on the social aspects. For the study, the author selected Social Aspects as one of the variable for which a sample of 500 from different sports disciplines were considered. The study was descriptive in nature and the samples were randomly selected, with age group being below 20years to above 40 years

The results of the study showed high degree of influence on social aspects viz, social values, social equality, integrity, tolerance, acceptance, habits & attitudes etc when it was statistically analyzed using percentile technique.

Key Words: Social Aspects, Society, Social Values, Social Inequalities

-*-*-*-

Influence of Sports Participation on Social Aspects of India

By

S Muniraju1 and Dr. Sundar Raj Urs2

Research Scholar, University College of Physical Education, Bangalore University

Email: muniraj7575@gmail.com

and

Reader, University College of Physical Education, Bangalore University

Email: sundarrajurs@yahoo.co.in

Abstract:

'Sports is more than a fashion, it is a new reality. Today sports have gained considerable, social, economical and political importance'

It is not important to make an individual just a literate, but he should be made more human, social and resourceful through proper education. Experiences gained through participation in sports like sympathy, co-operation, responsibility, abiding to rules & regulation help in gaining social values such as tolerance, acceptance, team spirit, sportsmanship etc. Participation in sports activities removes the inferiority complex in an individual and makes him move with the main stream of society. Through this type of involvement the social evils like 'untouchability, discrimination of caste, creed, color, race & religion will be overlooked.

The present study is an attempt to know the influence of sports participation on the social aspects. For the study, the author selected Social Aspects as one of the variable for which a sample of 500 from different sports disciplines were considered. The study was descriptive in nature and the samples were randomly selected, with age group being below 20years to above 40 years

The results of the study showed high degree of influence on social aspects viz, social values, social equality, integrity, tolerance, acceptance, habits & attitudes etc when it was statistically analyzed using percentile technique.

Key Words: Social Aspects, Society, Social Values, Social Inequalities

Influence of Sports Participation on Social Aspects of India

By

S Muniraju1 and Dr. Sundar Raj Urs2

Research Scholar, University College of Physical Education, Bangalore University

Email: muniraj7575@gmail.com

and

Reader, University College of Physical Education, Bangalore University

Email: sundarrajurs@yahoo.co.in

"Sports is a reflection of society and in many respects, Society is a reflection of sports"

Introduction:

Sports and games not only help achieve excellence but also attain higher social values and economic stability. Nowadays sports has become a way of life in many European countries and many of social, economical, cultural and racial differences are balanced through sports participation.

Experiences gained through participation in sports like sympathy, cooperation, responsibility, abiding to rules and regulations help in gaining social values for a democratic life in society. Participation in sports activities removes the inferiority complex in an individual and makes him move with the main stream of society. Through this type of involvement the social evils like 'untouchability, discrimination of caste, creed, colour, race & religion will be overlooked'.

The purpose of the study is to know the impact of sports participation on the Indian society.

Overall, a sport is more than a fashion, and it is new reality. Today, sports have gained considerable, social, economical, cultural and political importance.

Sports and Society:

Sport transcends all boundaries. Values such as tolerance, team spirit and strength of character are subconsciously demonstrated and practiced by people who play sports. Sports grounds are meeting places where social contacts are established and reinforced.

Sports as a Social Institution:

Sport has emerged in the last half of the twentieth century to become one of the most pervasive social institutions in contemporary societies. In recent years the social scientific study of sport has shed new light on this fascinating area of social life.

Statement of the Problem:

The purpose of the study is to analyze the influence of participating in sports and games over the decade in society as a whole and individual in particular. . The study further reveals the changes/transformation happened in the Indian society through sports participation and also the contribution of social aspects in bringing about social transformation in Indian society.

Concepts Defined:

Sports:

1. "Sports is a reflection of society & in many respects, Society is a reflection of sports" According to Hopman P

Reforms:

1. "A change for the better as a result of correcting abuses"

2. "A campaign aimed to correct abuses or malpractice"

Social Reform:

1. "Make changes for improvement in order to remove abuses and injustice prevailing in the society"

2. "Make changes for improvement in the social order of life and eradicating social evils through sports education"

Objectives of the Study:

  • Eradication of social evils of the society.

To understand the importance of 'Social values' in democratic society.

To eradicate social inequality' through free and fair participation in sports.

To observe the social changes through sports in the past few years.

Limitations of the Study:

The study is limited to social changes, which have taken place in the field of sports in the past few years through sports participation.

Delimitations of the Study:

Ø The study is delimited to the literature available through primary and secondary data including, documentations, papers, journals, and media i.e., print & visual.

Ø The study is delimited to the data obtained from the respondents through questionnaire

Ø The study is also delimited to Sportsmen, Coaches, Physical directors, Administrators and Academicians

Hypothesis of the Study: It is hypothesized that:

1. 'Sports' is one of the major avenues in India, where the people irrespective of caste, creed colour race and religion etc will come together as either, spectators or participants.

2. 'Social Equality' can be brought into one's life through participation in sports.

3. 'Sports' has influenced in bringing social, economical, and political changes in Indian society.

4. Sports & Games contribute to the life of an individual and the society of which he is a member

Methodology:

Information regarding sports participation and its contribution towards social transformation in the Indian society in the last few decades was studied in detail. In this section, the research design, selection of variables, selection of samples, construction of questionnaire, administration of the questionnaire, collection of data and statistical procedure adopted for the analysis of data have been depicted

Research Design:

The researcher, after careful and critical study of the available literature and discussions with the experts in the area of sports and physical education, decided to use a descriptive/survey method for the study

Selection of Samples:

Samples were chosen from different communities belonging to various sports disciplines in consultation with the experts in the field. The samples selected for the study were as below;

1. Sportsmen (Men & Women) of International, National, State, University repute etc

2. Coaches from various sports disciplines of International, National, State, University repute etc

3. Physical Directors of various colleges

4. Administrators and managers of various sports organizations & associations

5. Academicians of various sports and other institutes

6. Student community

Distribution of Samples:

It may be observed from the below table that, 925 questionnaires were distributed to the respondents out of which 570 filled in responses were received but only 500 samples were considered for the study

Table: Sample Distribution

S.N

Questionnaire Distributed to

No. of Questionnaire Distributed

No. of filled in Responses received

No of samples considered for the study

1

Sportsman

200

110

100

2

Coaches

80

58

50

3

Physical Directors

95

55

50

4

Academicians

110

52

50

5

Administrators

90

60

50

6

Students

350

235

200

TOTAL

925

570

500

Table: Age Wise Distribution of Samples

S.N

Age-Wise Distribution of Respondents

N

P

1

Below 20years

176

35.20

2

21 to 25years

95

19.00

3

26 to 30 years

46

09.20

4

30 to 35 years

50

10.00

5

35 to 40 years

36

07.20

6

40 and above

97

19.40

Total

500

100.00

S.N = Serial Number, N = No of Respondents, P = Percentage

Age group to which the respondents belong has clearly been shown in the table 4.1.2. It is clear from the table that most of the respondents are in the age group of below 20 years representing 35.20%. Nearly 95 respondents(19.00%) belong to 21-25years age group, a few respondents (46) are in the age group of 26-30years representing 9.20%, while 50 respondents are between the age group of 30-35years representing 10.00%, just 36 respondents belong to 35-40 years category with 7.20% and 97 respondents fall under 40 and above age group scoring 19.40% Thus, a majority of the respondents covered for the study belong to the age group below 20years (35.20%), 21-25years (19.00%), and 40 and above (19.40%) representing an overall percentage of 73.6%


Selection of Variables:

For the purpose of the study survey method was employed and the variables used for the study have been listed below;

1. General Factors 2. Physiological, Psychological & Socio-Psychological Factors

Each variable comprised of a required number of questions with options for the respondents to answer. Based on which the tabulation and analysis were done using the percentile technique followed by interpretation of the data.

The Social section contains 06 Questions (1-5). All the questions except Q.2 and Q.5 are Y/N type with sub questions. Q.N.1a.contains 7 statements, Q.N.2. contains 8 statements, Q.N.3a. contains 5 statements, Q.N.4a. contains 6 statements, Q.N.5. contains 4 statements. The sub questions have varied no of answers. Against each statement 3 point scale has been given. The respondents have marked () against the option they agree most to give their reply on a 3 point scale.

51.20% of the respondents accepted that, Sports & Games contributed to the life of an individual and the society of which he is a member by safeguarding health & well being.

57.80% of the respondents accepted that, sports help to overcome social and cultural changes of our society by removing social barriers such as Race, Religion, Caste, Creed etc.

60.20% accepted that, sports help to overcome social and cultural changes of our society by providing greatest opportunity for youths to exhibit their talents.

Construction of the Questionnaire:

To obtain data pertaining to the study, a questionnaire was constructed. The questionnaire consisted of 26 questions pertaining to the study to obtain relevant information. For the construction of questionnaire, standardized procedure was adopted by using following steps:

Ø Initial Framing of the Questionnaire

Ø Trial Run

Ø Tabulation of the Questionnaire

Ø Re-writing of the Questionnaire

Flow Chart of the Questionnaires Administered

Data Analysis and Interpretation:

The data was analyzed using percentile technique in order to ascertain

Table 1:

S.N

Has sports & Games contributed to the life of an individual and the society of which he is a member?

T

P

Yes

497

99.40

No

3

0.60

No response

0

0.00

Total

500

100.00

S.N = Serial Number, N = No of Respondents, P = Percentage

1

It may be observed from the above table that, 99.40% of the respondents answered 'YES' whereas 0.60% of the respondents replied 'NO'

Table 1a:

S.N

If yes, in what way has it contributed for the cause?

NA

PA

FA

T/P

(i)

By providing/fetching job

80

(16.00)

229

(45.80)

188

(37.60)

497

(99.40)

(ii)

By safeguarding health and well being

19

(3.80)

192

(38.40)

286

(57.20)

497

(99.40)

(iii)

Through Social recognition/facilitation

38

(7.60)

232

(46.40)

227

(45.40)

497

(99.40)

(iv)

By providing recreation

22

(4.40)

217

(43.40)

258

(51.60)

497

(99.40)

(v)

By providing food & shelter

46

(9.20)

234

(46.80)

217

(43.40)

497

(99.40)

(vi)

By providing, worthy use of leisure hours

37

(7.40)

210

(42.00)

250

(50.00)

497

(99.40)

(vii)

Any Other Pls. Specify ____________

Note: The figures in the parenthesis represent percentage .

S.N = Serial Number, NA = Not Accepted, PA = Partially Accepted, FA = Fully Accepted, T = Total, P = Percentage

1a

Significant differences are observed from the respondents who answered 'YES' for the Table 1. It may be observed from Table 1a that, 51.20% of the respondents fully accepted that sports & games contributes to the society of which he is a member by safeguarding health & well being.

Table 2:

S.N

Do you agree that sports help to overcome social and cultural changes of our society?

T

P

Yes

497

99.40

No

3

0.60

No response

0

0.00

Total

500

100.00

S.N = Serial Number, N = No of Respondents, P = Percentage

2

It may be observed from Table 2 that, 99.40% of the respondents answered 'YES' whereas 0.60% of them replied 'NO'

Table 2a:

S.N

If Yes, How and to what extent?

NA

PA

FA

T/P

(i)

By removing social barriers such as Race, Religion, Caste, Creed etc

6

(1.20)

204

(40.80)

287

(57.40)

497

(99.40)

(ii)

It acts as a unifying agency through which some extent counteracts the divisive force of Class, Religion, Race etc

22

(4.40)

238

(47.60)

237

(47.40)

497

(99.40)

(iii)

It represents a social enclave where people can behave in a more emotional manner

24

(4.80)

261

(52.20)

212

(42.40)

497

(99.40)

(iv)

It helps to throw light on to the process of development at wider societal level.

24

(4.80)

251

(50.20)

222

(44.40)

497

(99.40)

(v)

By providing a platform to exhibit the cultural heritages of society

49

(9.80)

191

(38.20)

257

(51.40)

497

(99.40)

(vi)

By providing greatest opportunity for youths to exhibit their talents

21

(4.20)

175

(35.00)

301

(60.20)

497

(99.40)

(vii)

It represents an human activity resting on social, educational and cultural values

30

(6.00)

230

(46.00)

237

(47.40)

497

(99.40)

(viii)

Any Other Pls. Specify _____________

Note: The figures in the parenthesis represent percentage .

S.N = Serial Number, NA = Not Accepted, PA = Partially Accepted, FA = Fully Accepted, T = Total, P = Percentage

2a

Significant associations are drawn from Tables 2 and Table 2a. 57.80% of the respondents accepted fully that sports help to overcome social & cultural changes of our society by removing social barriers such as Race, Religion, Caste, Creed etc' whereas, 60.20% opined that sports help to overcome social & cultural changes of our society by providing greatest opportunity for youths to exhibit their talents.

Table 3:

S.N

Do you agree that 'sports as a social institution permeates and mirrors many levels of society and influences the following elements?

T

P

Yes

500

100.00

No

0

0.00

No response

0

0.00

Total

500

100.00

S.N = Serial Number, N = No of Respondents, P = Percentage

3

It is evident from the above Table that, all the respondents answered 'YES' for the Question, Do you agree that 'sports as a social institution permeates and mirrors many levels of society and influences the following elements?

Table 3a:

3a

If Yes, How and to what extent?

NA

PA

FA

T/P

(i)

Race relations

86

(17.20)

241

(48.20)

173

(34.60)

500

(100.00)

(ii)

Business life

94

(18.80)

224

(44.80)

182

(36.40)

500

(100.00)

(iii)

Change in the life styles

30

(6.00)

221

(44.20)

249

(49.80)

500

(100.00)

(iv)

Ethical values leading to democratic life

47

(9.40)

248

(49.60)

205

(41.00)

500

(100.00)

(v)

More attractive and glamorous

34

(6.80)

196

(39.20)

270

(54.00)

500

(100.00)

(vi)

Any Other Pls. Specify ___________

Note: The figures in the parenthesis represent percentage .

S.N = Serial Number, NA = Not Accepted, PA = Partially Accepted, FA = Fully Accepted, T = Total, P = Percentage

3a

49.80% of the respondents fully accepted that, sports contributes for 'Change in the life styles' whereas, 54.00% of the respondents accepted that, sports is 'More attractive and glamorous'.

Table 4:

4

What are the factors that strengthen the educational and social role of sports?

NA

PA

FA

T/P

(i)

Sporting activities need to have a place in the educational system of each member state

3

(0.60)

149

(29.80)

348

(69.60)

500

(100.00)

(ii)

The values that sporting activities represent (equal opportunities, fair play, solidarity etc) must be passed on by sports associations, which make a contribution to education and training of young people to democratic life and to the social life

3

(0.60)

209

(41.80)

288

(57.60)

500

(100.00)

(iii)

Sporting activities must be made an essential tool for social integration and education

10

(2.00)

190

(38.00)

300

(60.00)

500

(100.00)

(vi)

Any Other Pls. Specify __________

Note: The figures in the parenthesis represent percentage .

S.N = Serial Number, NA = Not Accepted, PA = Partially Accepted, FA = Fully Accepted, T = Total, P = Percentage

4

Significant Associations are observed from Table. 4. The table clearly states that, 69.60% of the respondents firmly believe that, 'Sporting activities need to have a place in the educational system of each member state in order to strengthen the educational & social role of sports.

Whereas, 57.60% of the respondents felt that the values that sporting activities represent (equal opportunities, fair play, solidarity etc) must be passed on by sports associations, which make a contribution to education and training of young people to democratic life and to the social life' meanwhile 60.00% of the respondents opined 'Sporting activities must be made an essential tool for social integration and education'.

Findings & Discussion:

1. It is clearly evident from the present study that 95.60% of the respondents positively accepted the statement in Table 1a that 'Sports safeguards health & well being' and the statement concurs with the opinion of the author Loy John Wed . Hence, it is clearly evident from the above statement that fourth hypothesis is accepted.

2. It is clear from the present study that 99.40% of the respondents positively accepted the statement in the table 2a that sports helps to overcome social and cultural changes of our society and the statement correlates with the opinion of the author Synder Eldon E and Spreitzor Elmer. Hence, it is clearly evident from the above statement that the third hypothesis is accepted.

3. It is observed from the present study that 98.20% of the respondents accepted the first statement in the table 2a that, Sports helps removing social barriers such as Race, Religion, Caste, Creed etc' and the statement concurs with the opinion of Ioannis Douvis, Hence, it is clearly evident from the above statement that the second hypothesis is accepted.

Summary:

Sport has emerged in the last half of the twentieth century to become one of the most pervasive social institutions in contemporary Indian society. India is facing a severe problem of social inequality due to the influence of many social evils such as caste, creed, color, race and religion which has hampered the growth of the society and the economy to a very large extent. Sport has been one medium which can overcome the prevailing inequality through mass participation. It brings the individual under one umbrella irrespective of caste, creed, color, race and religion. This concept has got a great deal to do in bringing social justice in human beings as a whole through participation in the leisure-time pursuits. The major draw back in our education system is that we do not pay much attention to the development of physical capability of the students, which has resulted in neglect of development of inborn sports qualities. As a result, most of the youths are prone to academic pressure. Right from the child-hood a child is tuned to cope up to the academics due to which talented sports personalities do not have bright future in this system of education.

Hence, the study was conducted to analyze the influence of participation in sports and games over the decade in the society as a whole and individual in particular. The study has further revealed the changes/transformation that has occurred in the Indian society through sports participation

To sum up, it is evident from the study that, though sport has been instrumental in the transition of the Indian society to a larger extent, a need to be focused into, modified and achieved in order to reach new heights and yield better results.

Conclusions:

Within the limitations of the present study and on the basis of the results and findings the following conclusions have been drawn:

1. The study shows that maximum number of respondents accepted that, 'Sports helps to overcome social and cultural changes of our society' It is very much evident that, sports has been playing a phenomenal role in eradicating social evils such as, caste, creed, colour, race and religion. It represents a social enclave where people can behave in a more emotional manner. For Instance, sports provide a platform for sportsman of different communities to, share and exhibit not only ones talents but also culture and traditions which is very encouraging. The sporting grounds in recent times have been a meeting place to exchange of ideas, cultures and traditions sportively. In addition, sport has been one of the most important medium which provides the greatest opportunity for youths to exhibit their talents at the highest level in order to reach new heights.

2. The study further reveals that, a majority of the respondents have accepted 'Sport as a social institution that permeates and mirrors many levels of society'. It is clear that sport in Indian society has been instrumental in the transformation of the Indian society to a wider extent. It has been instrumental in changing the lifestyle, behaviour, attitude etc of an individual. In spite bounded by traditions and culture people have accepted the transformation with open hands in order to prove that Indians are rich in all aspects of society. For Example; there was a huge support from all corners of the country when few religious leaders of Muslim community questioned about the sports attire wore by Sania Mirza, during sports competitions, which clearly depicts the transformation of life style, relations and ethical values in India through sports.

3. From the study it is understood that a majority of the respondents agreed ''women's participation in sports has played a major role in transforming the society at large' It is evident that women's participation in sports has not only changed their social life or lifestyle but also resulted in socio-economic stability and bringing in gender equality which helps in bringing competiveness among individuals. The superiority in sports is not limited to male, the greatest performances and achievements at International arena are also made by many women athletes of this soil. For Instance; PT Usha, the queen of Indian sports is one of the best example not just for Indian sport but also the whole of Asia. She is the first woman athlete to win a golden boot from adidas for her excellence in performance and achievements in track & field. This has made way for young budding talents to join athletic community to excel and make a mark. PT Usha, Sania Mirza, Serena Williams, Marian Jones etc have been truly the great ambassadors of sports. The impact they have on the sporting field is immense and appreciable. They have been the role models to many and people try not only to study but also to build on their foot steps. Women's participation by and large, has also resulted in bringing high competence and efficiency in profession.

4. It is also seen from the study that a majority of the respondents agreed that 'Social values are well knit in sports' It is very much evident that, sport has been a constructive phenomenon, which unites different communities to promote international understanding. Sport is truly a peace promoting agency of our time which plays a significant role in bringing societies together without any discrimination. For instance; Indo-Pak bitterness has never hampered sporting relations but has always tried to bring in harmony between them. Sport has been a true ambassador which shares and attempts to create a healthy environment between nations. In this sense it is evident that sport acts as a true messenger in bridging the gap between nations in the best possible way.

Recommendations:

In the light of the conclusion and findings of the study following recommendations have been made:

  1. Any sports programme planned from school to national level should aim at removing bias & social evils of Indian society such as caste, creed, colour, race, religion & gender inequality.
  2. The ethics, values & philosophy of sports should be taught from the elementary level including the bibliography of great achievers in sports
  3. Sporting activities must be made an essential tool for social integration. Integration on social life, tolerance, acceptance of differences can be achieved mainly through sports where equal opportunity is given to all without discrimination of caste, creed, color, race & religion etc which will contribute for growth of sports in the country
  4. Sports should promote gender equality and empower women. Government should make special efforts to give more access to women to sports in the social, economical, political context in which they live, through encouraging more and more women participation in sports.
  5. More employment opportunities be created for outstanding sports personalities in various public, private and other sectors in order to attract more unemployed youths of the society to make sports as their career and to excel.

REFERENCES:

Books:

Dunning, Eric 'A Selection of Reading' in 'Sociology of Sports' Taylor & Francis group (Rout ledge), 2003

Eldon, Synder E and Elmer Spreitzor 'Social Aspects of Sports' Prentice Hall, New Jersey, USA, 1989

Freeman, H William 'Physical Education and Sport in a Changing Society' New Delhi Reprint, Surjeet Publications, 1988

John Wed Loy, 'Sports Culture and Society' Mc Milan Company, London, Page 29, 1970

Natan Alex 'Sport and Politics' in 'Sports Culture and Society' Loy John Wed, Mc Milan, Toronto, 1969

Roger C Rees and Andrew W. Miracle 'Hand book of Sports Studies 2000' Chapter 17 'Education and Sports' 2000

Papers and Website:

Bangalore Times, Times of India, Bangalore, 29.12.2007

Damania, Mehernaaz, Bangalore Times - Times of India, Bangalore, 29.12.2007

europa.eu.int/comm/sport/ sport-and/social/social_overview

Figel, Jan - European Year of Education through Sport, Brussels, 2 December 2004

Millet,Nisha,'If I had rupees 50 lakhs to spend', Times Sport,' Times of India, 6.10.2007

sports.indiapress.org/development.php


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