The NAPESS Journal of Physical Education & Sports Science, Under the aegis of NAPESS
ISSN 2229 – 7049 NAPESS – Journal Of Physical Education And Sports Science (Print)
ISSN 2229 – 7316 NAPESS – Journal Of Physical Education And Sports Science (Online)
12008 Vol: 1 Issue: 2008

Physical Education as an Academic Discipline

Author: Dr. Sundar Raj Urs —  Co-Author: S Muniraju —  Date: 2008-11-01

Abstract:

In the United States, teacher preparation in physical education originally had close links to medicine. A programme of study would commonly include anatomy, physiology, health, first-aid, history and philosophy, educational, psychology and various physical skills-from gymnastics through dance, games and sport.

A sports engineering is one of the most attractive professional preparation programme in the United Kingdom. The programme consists of Bio-Mechanics, Laws & principles of Physics, Kin anthropometry & Kinesiology apart from structural engineering and other aspects

Physical activity, sport and recreation programmes are delivered in many locations including home from infancy, schools through university; the work place; and communities. The adult population engages in physical activity through the time immemorial for health, cultural and social purposes.

Keywords: Physical Education, Academic, Discipline

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Physical Education as an Academic Discipline

By
Dr. Sundar Raj Urs1 and S Muniraju2

Reader, University College of Physical Education, Bangalore University

Email: sundarrajurs@yahoo.co.in

Research Scholar, University College of Physical Education, Bangalore University

Email: muniraj7575@gmail.com

Abstract

In the United States, teacher preparation in physical education originally had close links to medicine. A programme of study would commonly include anatomy, physiology, health, first-aid, history and philosophy, educational, psychology and various physical skills-from gymnastics through dance, games and sport.

A sports engineering is one of the most attractive professional preparation programme in the United Kingdom. The programme consists of Bio-Mechanics, Laws & principles of Physics, Kin anthropometry & Kinesiology apart from structural engineering and other aspects

Physical activity, sport and recreation programmes are delivered in many locations including home from infancy, schools through university; the work place; and communities. The adult population engages in physical activity through the time immemorial for health, cultural and social purposes.

Keywords: Physical Education, Academic, Discipline

Physical Education as an Academic Discipline

By
Dr. Sundar Raj Urs1 and S Muniraju2

Reader, University College of Physical Education, Bangalore University

Email: sundarrajurs@yahoo.co.in

Research Scholar, University College of Physical Education, Bangalore University

Email: muniraj7575@gmail.com



INTRODUCTION

For more than a century, Physical Education has been a fundamental part of the Indian Society. Education contributes to the development, advancement and perpetuation of the nation's culture. Education must meet the challenges present in the society. Our nation's schools and colleges should be concerned with the well- being of the individual student in his preparation for a productive, long and happy life in which his potentialities as an individual are enlarged and fulfilled and where his freedom will be assured.

Physical Education, as a phase of the total educational process, helps in realizing these purposes. The effective physical education programme helps the students to understand and appreciate the value of good as a means of achieving their greatest productivity, effectiveness and happiness as individuals.

In the past physical education has achieved only low educational status and a low degree of academic responsibility because it has emphasized the physical rather than the academic aspects and that physical education has been 'too far removed from the main educational stream' Physical Education must be identified as an important part of the education of each student.

A new approach to physical education has been introduced and this new approach has been classified as an 'Academic approach to physical education' This new approach of physical education relates to such concepts as academic achievement, learning and knowledge , as well as to skill and physical well-being.

ACADEMICS

A Brief History

  • During the latter part of the 1800's In 1952 Charles Bucher, described a ten-week course at the Normal Institute of Physical education in Boston.
  • A one-year course of study was developed in 1866 in New York City under the name of the North American Turnerbund.
  • In 1886 the Brooklyn Normal School for Physical Education was opened.
  • The poor condition of many of the men in the country who were called to serve in the war heightened interest in physical education. As a result of such concerns, there was some form of compulsory public school physical education in the thirty-eight states by 1930.

Origin

Academia is a collective term for the scientific and cultural community engaged in higher education and research taken as a whole. The word comes from the 'akademeia' just outside ancient Athens, where the gymnasium was made famous by Plato as a center of learning.

Definition

An 'academic term' is a division of an academic year, the time during which a school, college or university holds classes. These divisions may be called terms.

Meaning

  1. An academic discipline is a branch of knowledge, which is taught and researched at the college or university level.
  2. The academic discipline of physical education (often styled variously as kinesiology, human performance etc.) is taught as a field of study at the undergraduate and graduate levels in colleges and universities around the world. Both teaching and non-teaching degree programmes are offered through the doctoral level.

Scope of Physical Education as Academics

S.N

ELEMENT

OBJECTIVES

POTENTIAL BENEFITS

1

Disease Prevention

To use sport and physical education as forms of preventive medicine

Reduction of a person's risk of life-threatening diseases, such as Cardiovascular disease, Cancer, Diabetes, Obesity and Mental health

2

Psychological Well-Being

To use Sports and Physical to promote psychological health and well-being

Reduction of anxiety, depression and tension; enhancement of self-esteem, self confidence and perceived physical competence.

3

Social Cohesion

To use Sports and Physical activity as a unifying and integrating force in society

Promotion of equality, participation; reinforcement of social values and goals including hard work, fair play, character development and team work.

4

Health Promotion and Poverty Alleviation

To use Sports and Physical Education to promote basic health;

To gather people together for the purpose of playing sport or being physically active, as well as discussing health and social issues such as AIDS, Nutrition and Family Planning

Raising awareness of health issues and endangering healthier life-long practices. People who are healthy are better able to care of themselves and their families, and to contribute to the economic, social and political lives of their nations.

Direct and Indirect provisions of range of employment/self-employment opportunities


5

Reaching out youth at risk

To use sport and physical activity to offer positive alternatives to anti-social behaviours such as drug use and crime; and the problems that stem from a lack of self-esteem, boredom, idleness, alienation and poverty

Increased individual and community participation, ethical and democratic practices and racial tolerance; better family interactions and peer influence; behavioural standards and goals that contribute to positive social relations and the motivation to succeed; better use of free time Individuals who are regularly active demonstrate improved academic performance and are more likely to stay in/return to school

6

Identifying talented athletes

To identify and select individuals with the potential to become high performance athletes

Excellence in sport inspires athletes to try harder, and winning of medals inspires national pride.

Conclusion

The existing situation in this country could well have resulted from the poor physical education programme that has been offered at both the high school and college level in the past emphasizing the physical rather than the academic aspects of physical education. An important decision must therefore be made with regard to what materials should be included in college courses.

Pelton in his study entitled; "A critical analysis of current practices and beliefs underlying general physical education programmes" cites six basic concepts of physical education: They are as follows:

1. The development of 'strength and endurance" as an aspect of biological fitness.

2. The achievement of a personally satisfying level of motor skills involving 'fundamentals of movement'

3. The development of an aesthetic appreciation for the role of 'sports as a cultural force' in the modern world.

4. The acquisition of knowledge concerning 'agencies and resources useful in solving personal health problems'.

5. The 'clarification of self image' and enhancement of self esteem' through involvement in physical activities.

6. The acquisition of 'facility in the combined of use physical skills and mental interpretation'

If Physical Education is to become a class-room subject, changes are needed. The 'old' traditional type of physical education must be scrapped and a 'new' physical education with more emphasis on academic approach must replace it. The content of the new physical education programme must be of college level quality and provide assurance to college students of acquiring the following:

  1. Knowledge of the functional use of the body in its present status and an understanding of the problems it may encounter later in life.
  2. Knowledge of the Physiological effects and benefits of exercise.
  3. Knowledge and understanding of the concept of wellness (total well-being)
  4. Knowledge of evaluation and maintenance of fitness for more effective living during the college years and throughout life.
  5. Aware of the fundamental relationship between exercise, diet and weight control.
  6. Knowledge of the causes and prevention of chronic diseases.
  7. Knowledge of the relationship between physical fatigue, tension and relaxation.
  8. Knowledge of sufficiently wide variety of skills and technique (games & sports) so that, recreational activities can be selected which are suited to the interests, needs and abilities of the individual students.
  9. Knowledge of the prevention of sports injuries.
  10. Knowledge of the influence of ergogenic aids on sports performance.

References:

1. Dwyer T, Blizzard L, Dean K. Physical activity and performance in children. Nutrition Reviews 1996;54 (4 Pt 2):S27-S31.

2. Martin LT, Chalmers GR. The relationship between academic achievement and physical fitness. Physical Educator 2007;64(4):214-221.

3. Maeda JK, Randall LM. Can academic success come from five minutes of physical activity? Brock Education 2003;13(1):14-22.

4. Physical Activity Guidelines Advisory Committee. Physical Activity Guidelines Advisory Committee Report, 2008. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; 2008.

5. Trost S. Active Education: Physical Education, Physical Activity and Academic Performance. San Diego, CA: Active Living Research; 2007.


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Vol: 1 Issue: 2008