The NAPESS Journal of Physical Education & Sports Science, Under the aegis of NAPESS
ISSN 2229 – 7049 NAPESS – Journal Of Physical Education And Sports Science (Print)
ISSN 2229 – 7316 NAPESS – Journal Of Physical Education And Sports Science (Online)
12009 Vol: 1 Issue: 2009

Sports Participation and its Influence on Physical, Psychological & Socio-Psychological Aspects in India

Author: S Muniraju —  Co-Author: Dr. Sundar Raj Urs —  Date: 2009-10-01

Abstract:

"Sports can keep you physically healthy"

Sport is a universally spoken language and can be a highly effective means of providing a sense of structure in emergency situations which otherwise might appear chaotic. There is substantial evidence that engagement in sport can have a tremendous healing power for those suffering from physical and psychological trauma and stress-related anxiety. Through regular scheduled activity, children and adults can begin to regain a sense of security and enjoy periods of respite from the often-overwhelming challenge of reconstruction.

The relationship between the mind and the body has been studied from a dualistic perspective from the earliest of times in which the Greek and Hebrew philosophers viewing the mind and body as two very distinct entities. However, since then, most philosophers and researchers have taken a holistic perspective, considering the mind and the body to be interrelated, inseparable entities

The study throws a clear insight on the Physiological, Psychological & Socio-Psychological changes through sports participation in India.

Key Words: Sports Participation, Physiological aspects, Psychological aspects, Socio-Psychological aspects

-*-*-*-

Sports Participation and its Influence on Physical, Psychological & Socio-Psychological Aspects in India


by


S Muniraju1 and Dr. Sundar Raj Urs2

Research Scholar, University College of Physical Education, Bangalore University

Email: muniraj7575@gmail.com

Reader, University College of Physical Education, Bangalore University

Email: sundarrajurs@yahoo.co.in

__________________________________________________________________

Abstract

"Sports can keep you physically healthy"

Sport is a universally spoken language and can be a highly effective means of providing a sense of structure in emergency situations which otherwise might appear chaotic. There is substantial evidence that engagement in sport can have a tremendous healing power for those suffering from physical and psychological trauma and stress-related anxiety. Through regular scheduled activity, children and adults can begin to regain a sense of security and enjoy periods of respite from the often-overwhelming challenge of reconstruction.

The relationship between the mind and the body has been studied from a dualistic perspective from the earliest of times in which the Greek and Hebrew philosophers viewing the mind and body as two very distinct entities. However, since then, most philosophers and researchers have taken a holistic perspective, considering the mind and the body to be interrelated, inseparable entities

The study throws a clear insight on the Physiological, Psychological & Socio-Psychological changes through sports participation in India.

Key Words: Sports Participation, Physiological aspects, Psychological aspects, Socio-Psychological aspects

Sports Participation and its Influence on Physical, Psychological & Socio-Psychological Aspects in India


by


S Muniraju1 and Dr. Sundar Raj Urs2

Research Scholar, University College of Physical Education, Bangalore University

Email: muniraj7575@gmail.com

Reader, University College of Physical Education, Bangalore University

Email: sundarrajurs@yahoo.co.in

__________________________________________________________________

Introduction

"Sports can keep you physically healthy"

Sport is a universally spoken language and can be a highly effective means of providing a sense of structure in emergency situations which otherwise might appear chaotic. There is substantial evidence that engagement in sport can have a tremendous healing power for those suffering from physical and psychological trauma and stress-related anxiety. Through regular scheduled activity, children and adults can begin to regain a sense of security and enjoy periods of respite from the often-overwhelming challenge of reconstruction.

The relationship between the mind and the body has been studied from a dualistic perspective from the earliest of times in which the Greek and Hebrew philosophers viewing the mind and body as two very distinct entities. However, since then, most philosophers and researchers have taken a holistic perspective, considering the mind and the body to be interrelated, inseparable entities

The study throws a clear insight on the Physiological, Psychological & Socio-Psychological changes through sports participation in India.

Statement of the Problem:

The purpose of the study is to analyze the influence of participating in sports and games over the decade in society as a whole and individual in particular. The study further reveals the changes/transformation happened in the Indian society through sports participation and also the contribution of Physiological, Psychological & Socio-Psychological aspects in bringing about social transformation in Indian society.

Concepts Defined:

Sports:

1. "Sports is a reflection of society & in many respects, Society is a reflection of sports" According to Hopman P

2. Guttman defines; Sports as, "Playful contests which include an important measure of physical skill"

Reforms:

1. "A change for the better as a result of correcting abuses"

2. "A campaign aimed to correct abuses or malpractice"

Social Reform:

"Make changes for improvement in the social order of life and eradicating social evils through sports education"

Objectives of the Study:

Ø To observe the Physical, Psychological & Socio-Psychological changes through sports participation

Ø To eradicate social inequality' through free and fair participation in sports.

Ø To develop social habits and attitudes through participation in sports

Limitations of the Study:

The study is limited to Physicall, Psychological, and Socio-Psychological changes, which have taken place in the field of sports in the past few years through sports participation.

Delimitations of the Study:

Ø The study is delimited to the literature available through primary and secondary data including, documentations, papers, journals, and media i.e., print & visual.

Ø The study is delimited to the data obtained from the respondents through questionnaire

Ø The study is also delimited to sportsmen, coaches, Physical directors, administrators and academicians

Hypothesis of the Study:

It is hypothesized that:

1. 'Social Equality' can be brought into one's life through participation in sports.

2. 'Sports' has influenced in bringing Physical, Psychological & Socio-Psychological changes of an individual through sports participation in Indian society.

3. Sports has influenced in bringing about Social, Tolerance, Acceptance, Behavioral, & Attitudinal changes through sports participation in India.

Methodology:

Information regarding sports participation and its contribution towards social transformation in the Indian society in the last few decades was studied in detail. In this section, the research design, selection of variables, selection of samples, construction of questionnaire, administration of the questionnaire, collection of data and statistical procedure adopted for the analysis of data have been depicted

Research Design:

The researcher, after careful and critical study of the available literature and discussions with the experts in the area of sports and physical education, decided to use a descriptive/survey method for the study

Selection of Samples:

Samples were chosen from different communities belonging to various sports disciplines in consultation with the experts in the field. The samples selected for the study were as below;

1. Sportsmen (Men & Women) of International, National, State, University repute etc

2. Coaches from various sports disciplines of International, National, State, University repute etc

3. Physical Directors of various colleges

4. Administrators and managers of various sports organizations & associations

5. Academicians of various sports and other institutes

6. Student community

Distribution of Samples:

It may be observed from the below table that, 925 questionnaires were distributed to the respondents out of which 570 filled in responses were received but only 500 samples were considered for the study

Table: Sample Distribution

S.N

Questionnaire Distributed to

No. of Questionnaire Distributed

No. of Filled in Responses Received

No of Samples Considered for the Study

1

Sportsman

200

110

100

2

Coaches

80

58

50

3

Physical Directors

95

55

50

4

Academicians

110

52

50

5

Administrators

90

60

50

6

Students

350

235

200

TOTAL

925

570

500

Table: Age Wise Distribution of Samples

S.N

Age-Wise Distribution of Respondents

N

P

1

Below 20years

176

35.20

2

21 to 25years

95

19.00

3

26 to 30 years

46

09.20

4

30 to 35 years

50

10.00

5

35 to 40 years

36

07.20

6

40 and above

97

19.40

Total

500

100.00

S.N = Serial Number, N = No of Respondents, P = Percentage

Age group to which the respondents belong has clearly been shown in the table 4.1.2. It is clear from the table that most of the respondents are in the age group of below 20 years representing 35.20%. Nearly 95 respondents(19.00%) belong to 21-25years age group, a few respondents (46) are in the age group of 26-30years representing 9.20%, while 50 respondents are between the age group of 30-35years representing 10.00%, just 36 respondents belong to 35-40 years category with 7.20% and 97 respondents fall under 40 and above age group scoring 19.40% Thus, a majority of the respondents covered for the study belong to the age group below 20years (35.20%), 21-25years (19.00%), and 40 and above (19.40%) representing an overall percentage of 73.6%


Selection of Variables:

For the purpose of the study survey method was employed and the variables used for the study have been listed below;

1. General Factors 2. Physical, Psychological & Socio-Psychological Factors

Each variable comprised of a required number of questions with options for the respondents to answer. Based on which the tabulation and analysis were done using the percentile technique followed by interpretation of the data.

The Physical, Psychological & Socio-Psychological section contains 02 Questions (1-2). Q.N 1 and 2 are Y/N type with 2 sub questions 1a and 2a. Q.N. 1a.contains 6 statements and Q.N. 2a. contains 4 statements. The sub questions have varied no of answers. Against each statement 3 point scale has been given. The respondents have marked (Ö) against the option they agree most to give their reply on a 3 point scale.

99.80% of the respondents accepted that sports bring about behavioral changes in an individual whereas 92.40% of the respondents agreed that sports play a very prominent role in the psycho-sociological wellbeing of an individual.

Flow Chart of the Questionnaires Administered


Construction of the Questionnaire:

To obtain data pertaining to the study, a questionnaire was constructed. The questionnaire consisted of 26 questions pertaining to the study to obtain relevant information. For the construction of questionnaire, standardized procedure was adopted by using following steps:

Ø Initial Framing of the Questionnaire

Ø Trial Run

Ø Tabulation of the Questionnaire

Ø Re-writing of the Questionnaire

Data Analysis and Interpretation:

The data received from 500 respondents were analyzed with percentile technique and each variable observed were clearly depicted in the respondents table with, suitable graphical representation.

Table 1

S.N

Do you agree that sports bring about behavioral changes in an individual?

T

P

Yes

499

99.80

No

1

0.20

No response

0

0.00

Total

500

100.00

S.N = Serial Number, T = Total, P = Percentage


It is clearly observed from Table 1. Do you agree that sports bring about behavioral changes in an individual, about 499 (99.80%) respondents answered 'YES' and just 01 (0.20%) respondent replied 'NO'

Table 1a

S.N

If yes, what are the changes brought about?

NA

PA

FA

T/P

(i)

Physical changes

7

(1.40)

174

(34.80)

318

(63.60)

499

(99.80)

(ii)

Psychological changes

16

(3.20)

181

(3.20)

302

(60.40)

499

(99.80)

(iii)

Social changes

16

(3.20)

215

(43.00)

268

(53.60)

499

(99.80)

(iv)

Attitudinal changes

14

(2.80)

202

(40.40)

283

(56.60)

499

(99.80)

(v)

Changes in his visions and ideas towards the democratic life

18

(3.60)

205

(41.00)

276

(55.20)

499

(99.80)

(vi)

Any Other Pls. Specify __________

Note: The figures in the parenthesis represent percentage .

S.N = Serial Number, NA = Not Accepted, PA = Partially Accepted, FA = Fully Accepted, T = Total, P = Percentage

Significant associations have been observed for Tables 1 and 1a. Do you agree that sports bring about behavioral changes in an individual?

For the option 'Physical Changes', 318 (63.69%) of the respondents opined 'Fully Accepted' followed by 174 (34.80%) who opted 'Partially Accepted' and a meager 1.40% of them replied 'Not Accepted.

From the statement 'Psychological Changes' it is clearly evident that, 60.40% of the respondents opted 'Fully Accepted' while 36.20% opined 'Partially Accepted' whereas only 3.20% of the respondents chose 'Not Accepted'

Table 2

S.N

Do you agree that sports helps in psycho-sociological wellbeing of an individual?

T

P

Yes

462

92.40

No

38

7.60

No response

0

0.00

Total

500

100.00

S.N = Serial Number, T = Total, P = Percentage

It is clear from Table 2. Do you agree that sports helps in psycho-sociological wellbeing of an individual? 92.40% of the respondents answered 'YES' while 7.60% of the respondents replied 'NO'

Table 2a:

S.N

If yes, is it by protecting an individual from?

NA

PA

FA

T/P

(i)

Anti social elements

46

(9.20)

254

(50.80)

162

(32.40)

462

(92.40)

(ii)

Unfair play

38

(7.60)

241

(48.20)

183

(36.60)

462

(92.40)

(iii)

Drug abuse

35

(7.00)

225

(45.00)

202

(40.40)

462

(92.40)

(vi)

Any Other Pls. Specify _________

Note: The figures in the parenthesis represent percentage .

S.N = Serial Number, NA = Not Accepted, PA = Partially Accepted, FA = Fully Accepted, T = Total, P = Percentage

It is clearly shown in the table significant associations have been observed for Table 2. Do you agree that sports helps in psycho-sociological wellbeing of an individual? and Table 2a, if yes, is it by protecting an individual from?

For the statement, 'Anti Social Elements', 50.80% of the respondents have opined 'Partially Accepted' followed by 32.40% who replied 'Fully Accepted' while only 9.20% of the respondents marked 'Not Accepted'

The Table clearly depicts that, for the statement 'Unfair Play', 48.20% of the respondents marked 'Partially Accepted' while 36.60% of them answered 'Fully Accepted' whereas 7.60% replied 'Not Accepted'

Significant differences have been observed for the statement 'Drug Abuse' Nearly 45.00% of the respondents opined 'Partially Accepted' followed by 40.40% who answered 'Fully Accepted' and few respondents replied Not Accepted'

Findings & Discussion:

1. It is evident from the present study that 99.80% of the respondents accepted the Table No. 2. 'Do you agree that sports helps in psycho-sociological wellbeing of an individual? The question concurs with the opinion of Loy John Wed, The author accounting the range of questions that arises is very broad in such a social field as physical culture and sport believes that Sports sociology will in such a way with the help of socio-psychological knowledge be able to contribute substantially to the discovery of social laws governing the behavior of individuals, teams and sports groups of various branches. Hence, it is clearly evident from the above statement that, the second hypothesis is accepted.

2. It is also seen from the present study that 97.00% of the respondents accepted the fourth statement of the Table No. 1a. 'Attitudinal changes' This statement correlates with the statement of the writer, who points out that, like religion people turn to sports when they need something to believe in if they are feeling down and hopeless. He also says, a perfect parallel can be drawn from religion to the world of sports. Sports can lift the spirits of a fan or athlete. Which is why there are so many people who participate in some kind of sport activity Hence, it is clearly evident from the above statement that, the second hypothesis is accepted.

Summary:

Sport has emerged in the last half of the twentieth century to become one of the most pervasive social institutions in contemporary Indian society. India is facing a severe problem of social inequality due to the influence of many social evils such as caste, creed, color, race and religion which has hampered the growth of the society and the economy to a very large extent. Sport has been one medium which can overcome the prevailing inequality through mass participation. It brings the individual under one umbrella irrespective of caste, creed, color, race and religion.

Hence, the study was conducted to analyze the Physiological, Psychological and Socio-Psychological changes occurred through participation in sports and games over the decade in the society as a whole and individual in particular. To sum up, it is evident from the study that, though sport has been instrumental in the transition of the Indian society to a larger extent, a need to be focused into, modified and achieved in order to reach new heights and yield better results.

Conclusions:

Within the limitations of the present study and on the basis of the results and findings the following conclusions have been drawn:

1. The study brings out that a maximum number of respondents agreed that 'Sports bring about behavioral changes in an individual' It is quite evident that the sportsmen are bound to be very strong not only physically but also socially, attitudinally and psychologically. For instance; Marian Jones, the champion athlete returned her Olympic medals which she won accepting the truth that she had doped which a common man would have disagreed in doing so. This incident clearly shows the character and attitude which the sportsman is bound to possess.

2. The present study states that all the respondents agreed that 'Sports participation keeps an individual healthy and fit'. It is very much true that people have realized the importance of health and fitness as many diseases and disorders have been the talk of the generation. The major concern of the present generation is not job nor money but it is 'Health & Fitness' The anxiety and stress are two common problems which the people of present generation are prone due to workload and sports is the only medium to overcome such problems. Exercises stimulate various internal organs and develop antibodies in the body. It also acts as therapy and helps in removing ailments of the body.

Recommendations:

In the light of the conclusion and findings of the study following recommendations have been made:

  1. Physical Education should be made mandatory in the curriculum which will help generate both interest and participation in sports through which healthy future citizens are produced.
  2. The ethics, values & philosophy of sports should be taught from the elementary level including the bibliography of great achievers in sports
  3. Sporting activities must be made an essential tool for social integration. Social values, tolerance, acceptance, behavior, habits & attitudes etc can be achieved mainly through sports where equal opportunity is given to all without discrimination of caste, creed, color, race & religion etc which will contribute for growth of sports in the country
  4. Sports should promote gender equality and empower women. Government should make special efforts to give more access to women to sports in the social, economical, political context in which they live, through encouraging more and more women participation in sports.

REFERENCES:

Books:

  1. Dunning, Eric 'A Selection of Reading' in 'Sociology of Sports' Taylor & Francis group (Rout ledge), 2003
  2. Eldon, Synder E and Elmer Spreitzor 'Social Aspects of Sports' Prentice Hall, New Jersey, USA, 1989
  3. Freeman, H William 'Physical Education and Sport in a Changing Society' New Delhi - Reprint, Surjeet Publications, 1988
  4. John Wed Loy, 'Sports Culture and Society' Mc Milan Company, London, Page 29, 1970
  5. Natan Alex 'Sport and Politics' in 'Sports Culture and Society' Loy John Wed, Mc Milan, Toronto, 1969
  6. Roger C Rees and Andrew W. Miracle 'Hand book of Sports Studies 2000' Chapter 17 'Education and Sports' 2000

Papers and Website:

  1. Bangalore Times, Times of India, Bangalore, 29.12.2007
  2. Damania, Mehernaaz, Bangalore Times - Times of India, Bangalore, 29.12.2007
  3. Figel, Jan - European Year of Education through Sport, Brussels, 2 December 2004
  4. Millet,Nisha,'If I had rupees 50 lakhs to spend', Times Sport,' Times of India, 6.10.2007

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Vol: 1 Issue: 2009