The NAPESS Journal of Physical Education & Sports Science, Under the aegis of NAPESS
ISSN 2229 – 7049 NAPESS – Journal Of Physical Education And Sports Science (Print)
ISSN 2229 – 7316 NAPESS – Journal Of Physical Education And Sports Science (Online)
12009 Vol: 1 Issue: 2009

INFLUENCE OF SPORTS FACILITIES ON SPORTS ACHIEVEMENTS AMONG THE STUDENTS OF RESIDENTIAL SCHOOLS OF BANGALORE AND MYSORE DISTRICT

Author: R. Nagesha —  Co-Author: Dr. R. Munireddy —  Date: 2009-10-01

Abstract:

The facilities of a school available for the conduct of the physical education program determine to a considerable extent the type of program that can be offered. Many objectives of physical education can be more readily achieved for a greater number of students if the program presents a wide variety of activities. Different types of activities require different facilities; consequently, any limitation of facilities creates difficulties in presenting the desired variety of activities. Overcoming these difficulties requires the most careful planning and skillful teaching procedures. Well organized and imaginative use of the space and facilities however limited, can lead to realization of the desired objectives. Providing effective leadership is vastly timesmore important than having good facilities, for the creative teacher will make the best use of all available space within the school. The importance of sports in the life of a young student is invaluable and goes much further than the basic answer that "it keeps kids off the streets." It does in fact keep kids off the streets, but it also instills lessons that are essential in the life of a student athlete.

-*-*-*-

INFLUENCE OF SPORTS FACILITIES ON SPORTS ACHIEVEMENTS AMONG THE STUDENTS OF RESIDENTIAL SCHOOLS OF BANGALORE AND MYSORE DISTRICT

R. Nagesha Dr. R. Munireddy

Research Scholar Director of Physical Education

UCPE Bangalore University

Bangalore University Bangalore.

Bangalore.

______________________________________________________________________________

INTRODUCTION

The facilities of a school available for the conduct of the physical education program determine to a considerable extent the type of program that can be offered. Many objectives of physical education can be more readily achieved for a greater number of students if the program presents a wide variety of activities. Different types of activities require different facilities; consequently, any limitation of facilities creates difficulties in presenting the desired variety of activities. Overcoming these difficulties requires the most careful planning and skillful teaching procedures. Well organized and imaginative use of the space and facilities however limited, can lead to realization of the desired objectives. Providing effective leadership is vastly timesmore important than having good facilities, for the creative teacher will make the best use of all available space within the school. The importance of sports in the life of a young student is invaluable and goes much further than the basic answer that "it keeps kids off the streets." It does in fact keep kids off the streets, but it also instills lessons that are essential in the life of a student athlete.

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The statement of the study was "INFLUENCE OF SPORTS FACILITIES ON SPORTS ACHIEVEMENTS AMONG THE STUDENTS OF RESIDENTIAL SCHOOLS OF BANGALORE AND MYSORE DISTRICTS."

PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

The purpose of the study was to find out the influence of sports facilities and status of secondary school students on their sports achievements of the students in selected residential schools of Bangalore and Mysore districts.

LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

The study was limited to the performance achieved in the participation of sports at district, Division or State, National and International level.Study was limited to residential schools comes under that jurisdiction of Bangalore and Mysore regions and their sports facilities are considered. It was further, no motivational factors like food and environment are not taken for the study.

DELIMITATIONS

The study was delimited to the selected residential schools surrounding Bangalore and Mysore districts. The study was delimited only to the students undergoing 8th, 9th and 10th standard at the residential schools for the academic years 2006-07, 2007-08, and 2008-09 respectively. It was further delimited to the facilities available and performance of students in the different sports competitions only during the period from 2006 to 2009.

HYPOTHESES

It was hypothesized that there would be a significant relationship between Sports facilities with Sports Achievement

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The study may helps to ascertain the facilities available and to know the level of student's participation in sports and games in the residential schools.

RESEARCH DESIGN

The researcher after careful and critical study of the available literatures and discussion with experts in the area of sports and physical education decided to use Descriptive/Survey method for the study.

Survey method was employed to study the influence of sports facilities on sports achievements of student's studying in selected residential schools of Bangalore and Mysore districts.

SELECTION OF SAMPLES

The subjects were randomly selected from residential schools of Bangalore and Mysore districts in consultation with the experts in the field.

The samples selected for the study are as below;

1. Students of 08th, 09th, and 10th standards with in the stipulated academic years of 2006-07, 2007-08, 2008-09 respectively.

2. Students who have at least participated in District, Division or State, National and International level in any of the sports discipline.

3. Samples were selected from different residential schools such as, Government, Government Aided, Navodaya, Morarji Desai, International Public schools, Private Residential schools with state, CBSE and ICSE syllabus of Bangalore and Mysore districts.

4. The samples considered for the study is 448 out of 36 residential schools of Bangalore and Mysore districts.

SELECTION OF VARIABLES

The investigator was highly interested in observing the effect of "Influence of sports facilities and sports achievement and among the students of residential schools. For the purpose of the study survey method is employed and the variables used for the study are listed below;

a) Sports Facilities

b) Sports Achievements

a) Sports facilities in the institutions were examined during three consecutive years from 2006-2009 in order to analyze its influence on the student's achievements and performance at academic level. Based on the facilities provided in the schools and socio-economic status of the parents, the achievement of the respondent was analyzed at a given period of time (2006-2009).

b) The sports achievement of all the students, selected for the study during these three consecutive years were collected and analyzed in order to get an appropriate result.

The sports achievement of each sample considered for the study was assessed by providing points as specified in the below table.

Table-1

S.N

ACHIEVEMENT

POINTS

1

Participation

01

2

Bronze

02

3

Silver

03

4

Gold

04

The table clearly depicts that, a respondent participating at District, Division or State, Nationals, International level fetches 01 point. While a student with bronze gets 02 points whereas a respondent with silver gets 03 points and gold with 04 points respectively. The achievement has been assessed by the number of events a respondent participated at different level within the stipulated period of three years (2006-09). For example; if a student took part in 03 events and has secured 01 bronze and 01 silver in the given period. The respondent's total point would be 06. He scores 01 point for participation, 02 for securing bronze and 03 points for fetching silver.

CONSTRUCTION OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE

To obtain the data pertaining to the sports facilities and sports achievements of residential school students, a separate questionnaires were constructed for each variable. Each questionnaire had adequate number of questions to obtain relevant information related to the study. For the construction of questionnaire, standardized procedure was adopted.

ADMINISTRATION OF QUESTIONNAIRE

The questionnaires were distributed to the subjects personally to get their response. An appeal was made in the form of covering letter and was administrated along with the questionnaire, requesting the subject's willingness and co-operation.

COLLECTION OF DATA

The data required for the assessment of Sports facilities and Sports achievements of each student was collected from the respective schools, through school records and documents, and also through interview method.

SCORING OF DATA

The duly filled questionnaire and the information sought from the official documents, school records and also from personal interviews were tabulated for the purpose of data analysis. The information was analyzed separately and all the information was tabulated in numerals.

APPLICATION OF STATISTICAL TECHNIQUES

For the analysis and interpretation of the data, frequency tables and percentages, Pearson's coefficient correlation and 't' tests were worked out separately to find out influence of sports facilities on sports achievements of the residential school students. The gathered scores are assessed, operated statistically, evaluated, interpreted and reported.

ANALYSIS OF DATA

The researcher covers the descriptive and statistical analysis and also the results of the study in order to study the influence of Sports Facilities on Sports Achievements of residential school students in Bangalore and Mysore District.

The variables chosen for the study are:

a) Sports Facilities

b) Sports Achievement

The obtained data were analyzed statistically with descriptive statistics, simple statistics and 't' test. The Percentage, Mean, Standard Deviation (SD) were calculated. The hypotheses are tested through 't' test was calculated at 0.05 and 0.01 level of significance.

The data for the present study was obtained by the residential high school students of selected schools of Bangalore and Mysore Districts.

Table-2

Table showing the distribution of the schools based on district.

Sl. No.

District

Frequency

Percentage

1

Bangalore

27

75.00

2

Mysore

9

25.00

Total

36

100.00

It was clearly evident from the above table that, out of 36 residential schools considered for the study, 27 (75%) schools are situated in Bangalore while only 09 (25%) of the schools are of Mysore district.

Table-3

Table showing details of the availability of sports infrastructure for sports events in the institutions.

Sl. No.

Sports Disciplines

2006-07

2007-08

2008-09

Yes

No

Yes

No

Yes

No

1

Archery

1

35

1

35

1

35

2

Athletic Track 200 mts.

16

20

16

20

16

20

3

Athletic Track 400 Mtrs.

32

4

32

4

32

4

4

Ball Badminton

6

30

6

30

6

30

5

Baseball

18

18

18

18

18

18

6

Basketball

4

32

4

32

4

32

7

Billiards

4

32

4

32

4

32

8

Boxing

30

6

30

6

30

6

9

Chess

27

9

27

9

27

9

10

Cricket

24

12

24

12

24

12

11

Football

6

30

6

30

6

30

12

Golf

2

34

2

34

2

34

13

Gymnastics

7

29

7

29

7

29

14

Handball

16

20

16

20

16

20

15

Hockey

21

15

21

15

21

15

16

Horse Riding

1

35

1

35

1

35

17

Kabaddi

22

14

22

14

22

14

18

Karate

4

32

4

32

4

32

19

Kho-Kho

3

33

3

33

3

33

20

Lawn Tennis

7

29

7

29

7

29

21

Net Ball

25

11

25

11

25

11

22

Shuttle Badminton

23

13

23

13

23

13

23

Skating

1

35

1

35

1

35

24

Swimming

7

29

7

29

7

29

25

Table Tennis

7

29

7

29

7

29

26

Throw Ball

32

4

32

4

32

4

27

Volleyball

33

3

33

3

33

3

28

Yoga

25

11

25

11

25

11

The above table shows the infrastructure facilities provided by the institution to their students during the year 2006-07 to 2008-09. It is evident from the above table that most of the residential schools have provided sports facilities mainly for Athletics, Baseball, Boxing, Chess, Cricket, Handball, Hockey, Kabaddi, Netball, Shuttle Badminton, Throw ball and Volleyball games. Only few residential schools have provided sports facilities for Archery, Ball Badminton, Basketball, Billiards, Football, Golf, Gymnastics, Horse Riding, Karate, Kho-Kho, Lawn Tennis, Skating, Swimming and Table Tennis.

Table-4

Table representing the details of availability of Gymnasiums, Swimming pools and Indoor halls in the institutions.

Sl. No.

Facilities

Availability

Yes

No

1

Gymnasium

11

25

2

Swimming Pools

11

25

3

Indoor Halls

29

7

The above table depicts the number of Gymnasia, Swimming pools and indoor halls provided by the residential schools for their children. Out of 36 residential schools only 11 (30.55%) schools have Gymnasium halls for their students, whereas few schools are found to utilize Gymnasium halls for both sports and recreational facilities, while 25 schools do not have Gymnasium halls.

The table further reveals that, out of 36 residential schools only 11 (30.55%) schools have Swimming pools with different sizes whereas the remaining 25 residential schools do not have swimming facilities. The table also shows that, 29 (80.55%) schools have Indoor halls whereas a partial i.e., 07 (19.45%) schools do not have Indoor halls.

RESIDENTIAL SCHOOL STUDENTS' SPORTS ACHIEVEMENT

Table-5

Table showing District level sports achievements of various residential schools during the year 2006-09.

Sl. No.

Types of residential schools

Participation

Gold

Silver

Bronze

Total

%

1

Government

11

0

0

0

0

0.00

2

Government Aided

99

68

50

17

135

29.00

3

Morarji Desai

41

05

11

05

21

4.50

4

Navodaya

17

14

06

06

26

5.50

5

Private Unaided

79

54

45

14

113

24.10

6

International

66

104

43

25

172

36.90

Total

313

245

155

67

467

100.00

The above table shows the school wise sports achievement during the year 2006-09.It further reveals that, the international school students achieved more than Government Aided and Private Unaided schools, whereas in Morarji and Navodaya schools achievement of students was very poor. There was no achievement in the Government residential schools.

Table-6

Table showing Division or State level Sports Achievements of various residential schools during the year 2006-07 to 2008-09.

Sl. No.

Types of residential schools

Participation

Gold

Silver

Bronze

Total

%

1

Government

-

-

-

-

-

-

2

Government Aided

91

17

21

03

41

15.00

3

Morarji Desai

8

0

2

3

5

1.85

4

Navodaya

4

3

3

4

10

3.70

5

Private Unaided

35

79

23

14

116

42.70

6

International

29

71

21

8

100

36.75

Total

167

170

70

32

272

100.00

It was clear from the above table that, the private unaided school students achieved more than international schools and private aided schools while Morarji and Navodaya schools achievement at national level was very poor. There was no participation and achievement in the government residential schools.

Table-7

Table showing International level sports achievements of various residential schools during the year 2006-09.

Sl. No.

Types of residential schools

Participation

Gold

Silver

Bronze

Total

%

1

Government

-

-

-

-

-

-

2

Government Aided

-

-

-

-

-

-

3

Morarji Desai

-

-

-

-

-

-

4

Navodaya

-

-

-

-

-

-

5

Private Unaided School

-

-

-

-

-

-

6

International Schools

3

-

-

-

-

-

7

Total

3

-

-

-

-

-

It was clear from the above table that, only the International residential school students participated at International level but there achievement was very poor whereas, other residential schools didn't even participate at International level.

FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION

DATA OBTAINED FROM SPORTS PARTICIPATED STUDENTS

Table-8

Table showing distribution of samples based on gender, group, district, type of school, medium of instruction, and sports facilities.

Sl. No.

Variable

Number

Percentage

1

Gender

Boys

335

74.80

Girls

113

25.20

2

Sports Group

Individual Event

137

30.60

Team Games

311

69.40

3

District

Bangalore

337

75.20

Mysore

111

24.80

4

Type of School

Government

11

2.50

Government Aided

130

29.0

Morarji Desai

37

8.30

Navodaya

43

9.60

Private Unaided

109

24.30

International

118

26.30

5

Medium of Instruction

State

206

46.00

CBSE

113

25.20

ICSE

129

28.80

6

Sports Facilities

Less

218

48.70

More

230

51.30

The above table shows, the distribution of sample based on gender, group, district, type of school, medium of instruction, sports facilities and socio-economic status levels.

MEAN AND STANDARD DEVIATION

SPORTS ACHIEVEMENT

Table-9

Table showing comparison of Mean scores and Standard Deviation of residential secondary school students' Sports Achievement.

Sl. No.

Variable

Number

Mean

Standard Deviation

1

Gender

Boys

335

7.035

5.740

Girls

113

5.911

5.414

2

Sports Group

Individual Event

137

6.948

5.279

Team Games

311

6.665

5.847

3

District

Bangalore

337

7.513

6.086

Mysore

111

4.441

3.249

4

Type of School

Government

11

1.000

0.001

Government Aided

130

5.946

5.061

Morarji Desai

37

3.324

2.687

Navodaya

43

10.767

6.097

Private Unaided

109

7.825

5.631

International

118

6.796

5.950

5

Medium of Instruction

State

206

5.203

4.557

CBSE

113

9.345

6.434

ICSE

129

6.953

5.757

6

Sports Facilities

Less

218

6.623

5.698

More

230

6.873

5.662

It was evident from the above table that, comparison mean scores of residential secondary school students' sports achievement are due to variations in their gender, group, district, type of school, medium of instruction and sports facilities.

Hypothesis-1

There was no significant relationship between Sports Facilities and Sports Achievement of residential school students.

Table-10

Table showing Number (N), Degree of Freedom (Df), 'r' value and level of significance between Sports Facilities and Sports Achievement of Residential school students.

Variable

N

Df (N-2)

'r'

Level of Significance

Sports Facilities and Sports Achievement

448

446

0.112

*

* Significant at 0.05 level.

Table-10 depicts the co-efficient of correlation between Sports Facilities and Sports Achievement of residential school students. It is evident from the above table that, the obtained 'r' value was 0.112, which shows a significant positive relationship at 0.05 level ('r' critical value 0.098) between Sports Facilities and Sports Achievement of residential school students.

Hence, the above stated hypothesis was rejected and an alternative hypothesis formulated that "there was a significant positive relationship between Sports Facilities and Sports Achievement of residential school students'. Hence, it can be concluded that, enhanced sports facilities have higher sports achievement and vice versa.

Hypothesis-2

There was no significant difference in the Sports Achievement between residential secondary school boys and girls.

Table-11

Table showing Mean, Standard Deviation, 't' value and Level of Significance of Sports Achievement between secondary school residential boys and girls.

Variable

Group

Mean

Standard Deviation

't' value

Level of Significance

Gender

Boys

335

7.035

5.740

1.880

Not Significant

Girls

113

5.911

5.414

NS = Not Significant

Table-11 depicts the mean and standard deviation of Sports Achievement scores of residential secondary school boys and girls are described.

The obtained 't' value 1.880 was lesser than the table value 1.97 even at 0.05 level of significance with df of 446. Therefore the stated hypothesis was accepted that "there was no significant difference in the Sports Achievement between residential secondary school boys and girls."

Hypothesis-3

There was no significant difference in the Sports Achievement among residential school students studying in different type of syllabus.

As 'F'-ratio was found significant, further Scheffe's Post-hoc test was applied to know the further significant differences in the Sports Achievement among residential school students studying in different type of syllabus.

Table-12

Post-hoc Analysis of Sports Achievement among residential school students studying in different type of syllabus.

Type of Syllabus

Mean Difference

State

CBSE

ICSE

5.203

9.345

4.141*

9.345

6.953

2.391*

5.203

6.953

1.749*

* Significant at 0.05 level.

Table-12 shows that, there was a significant difference in Sports Achievement among residential school students studying in different type of syllabus.

The residential school students studying in CBSE syllabus have more sports performance (M=9.345) than students studying in ICSE syllabus (M=6.953) and State Syllabus (M=5.203).

DISCUSSION OF HYPOTHESES

The following hypotheses were tested

Results of Correlation 'r' value :

There was no significant relationship between Sports Facilities and Sports Achievement of residential school students. The stated hypothesis was rejected and alternative hypothesis formulated that "there was a significant positive relationship between Sports Facilities and Sports Achievement of residential school students."

Results of 't' Test :

a) There was no significant difference in the Sports Achievement between residential secondary school boys and girls. The stated hypothesis was accepted.

b) There was no significant difference in the Sports Achievement between residential secondary school students who have participated at individual event and team games. The stated hypothesis was accepted.

c) There was no significant difference in the Sports Achievement between residential secondary students belonging to Bangalore and Mysore Districts. The stated hypothesis was rejected and alternative hypothesis formulated that "there was a significant difference in the Sports Achievement between residential secondary students belonging to Bangalore and Mysore Districts. "

d) There was no significant difference in the Sports Achievement between residential secondary school students having less and more sports facilities available in the institutions. The stated hypothesis was accepted.

DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS

The following were the major findings of the study:

Results of Correlation 'r' value:

a) There was a significant positive relationship between Sports Facilities and Sports Achievement of residential school students. The enhanced sports facilities have higher sports achievement and vice versa.

b) It is evident from the table 20 that, the residential schools with better facilities have more achievements as compared to other residential schools. The study further, proves that students who are accessible to sports facilities have been performing better compared to the ones who do not have proper facilities.

Results of 't' Test:

a) There was no significant difference in the Sports Achievement between residential secondary school boys and girls.

b) There was no significant difference in the Sports Achievement between residential secondary school students who have participated at individual event and team games.

c) There was a significant difference in the Sports Achievement between residential secondary students belonging to Bangalore and Mysore Districts. The residential school

students belonging to Bangalore district (M=7.513) have superior Sports Achievement than Mysore district (M=4.441).

d) The residential school students of Bangalore district are accessible to better facilities such as ground, training, coaching etc., which in turn helps to achieve more as compared to the ones which have less facilities.

e) There was no significant difference in the Sports Achievement between residential secondary school students having less and more sports facilities available in the institutions.

SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS

SUMMARY OF THE STUDY

The investigator was highly interested in observing the effect of "Influence of sports facilities on sports achievement among the students of residential schools.

To obtain the data pertaining to the sports facilities and sports achievements of residential school students separate questionnaires were constructed for each variable For the construction of questionnaire, standardized procedure was adopted through following steps.

The questionnaires were distributed to the subjects personally to get their response. The research scholar visited all the residential schools personally and administered the questionnaire to the physical education teacher subjected Maximum possible efforts were made to get the most first had information from the subjects of each residential school. The sports achievements of the residential school students were collected from the school records and other official documents to ascertain the authenticity of the information. The information was analyzed separately and all the information was tabulated in numerals.For the analysis and interpretation of data, frequency tables, percentages, Pearson's Coefficient Correlation and 't' tests were worked out separately to find out influence of sports facilities and sports performance.

CONCLUSIONS

Within the limitations of the study the following conclusions were drawn:

1) It was observed from the study that, there was a significant positive relationship between Sports facilities and Sports Achievement of residential school students. The enhanced sports facilities have higher sports achievement and vice versa.

2) It was clear from the study that, there was no significant difference in the Sports Achievement between residential secondary school boys and girls.

3) The study further reveals that, there was no significant difference in the Sports Achievement between residential secondary school students who have participated at individual event and team games.

4) The study brings out that, there was a significant difference in the Sports Achievement between residential secondary students belonging to Bangalore and Mysore districts.

REFERENCES

Barghchi, Maassoumeh, "Sports Facilities Development and Urban Generation" Faculty of Architecture, Planning and Surveying, University Technology MARA, Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia Sports Centre, University of Malaya 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Journal of Social Sciences (2009), Vol.5(4): 460-465.

Bogar, Craig T. "Trends in Collegiate Recreational Sports Facilities"The Sports Journal Quarterly, United States Sports Academy ( 2008) Vol:11(4) : 14-15.

Bringing Up Girls in Science, Bugs-parents (University of North Texas), 2003. Retrieved (February 26), 2009, from http://www.coe.unt.edu/bugs/ parents.index.html .

Brooke, J.D. "Personality, achievement in physical competition, physique and grip strength in female physical education students", ( December 1969) - Volume 1 - Issue 4

Dange, Jagannath K. and Praveen, R., "Library Facilities and the Academic Achievement of Secondary Students", Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, (2000).

Darling, N., Caldwell, L.L. and Smith, R., "Participation in school-based extracurricular activities and adolescent adjustment", Journal of Leisure Research, 2005, 37: 51-77.

Edwards, Nicole C., "School Facilities and Student Achievement: Student Perspectives On The Connection Between The Urban Learning Environment And Student Motivation And Performance", (Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, The Ohio State University, (2006).

Greendorfer S.L., " Social Class Influence in Female Sports Involvement Sex Roles, 4, (1978), Pp.619-625.

Grewal, A., "An International Study of Cognitive and Socio-Economic Correlations of School Achievement", J. Psy. Res., (1985), 29(1): 41-45.


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