The NAPESS Journal of Physical Education & Sports Science, Under the aegis of NAPESS
ISSN 2229 – 7049 NAPESS – Journal Of Physical Education And Sports Science (Print)
ISSN 2229 – 7316 NAPESS – Journal Of Physical Education And Sports Science (Online)
12009 Vol: 1 Issue: 2009

INFLUENCE OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS ON SPORTS ACHIEVEMENTS AMONG THE STUDENTS OF RESIDENTIAL SCHOOLS OF BANGALORE AND MYSORE DISTRICTS

Author: R. Nagesha  —  Co-Author: Dr. R. Munireddy —  Date: 2009-10-01

Abstract:

Socio economic status plays an important role in the life of a person. The status opens the ways for his progress. Intelligence, attitudes, aptitudes and even interests are patterned by socio economic background of an individual.

-*-*-*-

INFLUENCE OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS ON SPORTS ACHIEVEMENTS AMONG THE STUDENTS OF RESIDENTIAL SCHOOLS OF BANGALORE AND MYSORE DISTRICTS

R. Nagesha
Research Scholar
UCPE
Bangalore University
Bangalore

 

Dr. R. Munireddy
Director of Physical Education
UCPE
Bangalore University
Bangalore


INTRODUCTION

Socio economic status plays an important role in the life of a person. The status opens the ways for his progress. Intelligence, attitudes, aptitudes and even interests are patterned by socio economic background of an individual.

The variations in achievement are also due to the differences in socio economic status of the children, differential treatment given by parents, parent's educational level, influence of the surroundings and so on. The influence of socio-cultural factors on various aspects of individual's development has particularly caught the attention of educationists. Individual success and failure can also be judged by facilities and environment provided for the study, self-concept and study habits. children belonging to higher socio economic status are not only brilliant but also are provided better opportunities for developing intellectually, physically and emotionally. The type of intellectual environment in the home will definitely have an impact on the school achievement of the child and this intellectual environment in turn is determined by intellectual level of parents, parent's education, occupation, income, size of the family etc. During the lifespan of an individual adolescence is a stage highly influenced by so many things around the world. Adolescents are highly influenced by society, socio economic status, self-concept, study habits, emotional maturity etc., which may enhance the academic achievement of adolescence or may disturb the academic achievement of adolescence in high school period.

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The statement of the study was "INFLUENCE OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS ON SPORTS ACHIEVEMENTS AMONG THE STUDENTS OF RESIDENTIAL SCHOOLS OF BANGALORE AND MYSORE DISTRICTS."

PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

The purpose of the study was to find out the influence of socio economic status of secondary school students on their sports achievements of the students in selected residential schools of Bangalore and Mysore districts.

LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

  1. The study was limited to the performance achieved in the participation of sports at district, Division or State, National and International level and socio-economic background of the parents of children were studying in the residential schools.
  2. Study was limited to residential schools comes under that jurisdiction of Bangalore and Mysore regions and their sports achievements are considered.

DELIMITATIONS

  1. The study was delimited to the selected residential schools surrounding Bangalore and Mysore districts.
  2. The study was delimited only to the students undergoing 8th, 9th and 10th standard at the residential schools for the academic years 2006-07, 2007-08, and 2008-09 respectively.
  3. The study was delimitation to the information procured from the respective schools by Sports Achievements and Socio Economic status is considered.
  4. It was further delimited to performance of students in the different sports competitions only during the period from 2006 to 2009.

HYPOTHESES

1. It was further hypothesized that the parent belongs to the aristocratic families encourages the children's to study in residential schools.

2. It was further hypothesized that there would be a significant relationship between Socio-economic Status with Sports Achievement of residential school students.

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

  1. It may also helps to ascertain the influence of Socio-economic Status on Sports Achievement.
  2. The study may provide an opportunity to assess the socio-economic background of the parents.

RESEARCH DESIGN

The researcher after careful and critical study of the available literatures and discussion with experts in the area of sports and physical education decided to use Descriptive/Survey method for the study. Survey method was employed to study the influence of socio-economic status on sports achievements of student's studying in selected residential schools of Bangalore and Mysore districts.

SELECTION OF SAMPLES

The subjects were randomly selected from residential schools of Bangalore and Mysore districts in consultation with the experts in the field.

The samples selected for the study are as below;

1. Students of 08th, 09th, and 10th standards within the stipulated academic years of 2006-07, 2007-08, 2008-09 respectively.

2. Students who have at least participated in District, Division or State, National and International level in any of the sports discipline.

3. Samples were selected from different residential schools such as, Government, Government Aided, Navodaya, Morarji Desai, International Public schools, Private Residential schools with state, CBSE and ICSE syllabus of Bangalore and Mysore districts.

4. The samples considered for the study is 448 out of 36 residential schools of Bangalore and Mysore districts.

SELECTION OF VARIABLES

The investigator was highly interested in observing the effect of "Influence of socio economic status of the parents of children on sports achievement and among the students of residential schools. For the purpose of the study survey method is employed and the variables used for the study are listed below;

1. Socio-Economic status

2. Sports Achievements

ASSESSMENT OF SOCIO ECONOMIC NEEDS SATISFACTION SCALE

The test was designed to measure socio-economic criteria of the subjects. The scale consists of important categories, such as education with 15 items, occupation with 24 items and income with 10 items respectively.

The income level of each category has been done by considering the (i) Poverty line and (ii) Income tax slabs. Therefore, ranges of income level changes from time to time depending upon the variation in poverty lines and income tax slabs.

SPORTS ACHIVEMENTS

The sports achievement of each sample considered for the study was assessed by providing points as specified in the below table.

Table-1

S.N

ACHIEVEMENT

POINTS

1

Participation

01

2

Bronze

02

3

Silver

03

4

Gold

04

The table clearly depicts that, a respondent participating at District, Division or State, Nationals, International level fetches 01 point. While a student with bronze gets 02 points whereas a respondent with silver gets 03 points and gold with 04 points respectively.

CONSTRUCTION OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE

To obtain the data pertaining to the sports facilities and sports achievements of residential school students, a separate questionnaires were constructed for each variable. Each questionnaire had adequate number of questions to obtain relevant information related to the study. For the construction of questionnaire, standardized procedure was adopted.

ADMINISTRATION OF QUESTIONNAIRE

The questionnaires were distributed to the subjects personally to get their response. An appeal was made in the form of covering letter and was administrated along with the questionnaire, requesting the subject's willingness and co-operation.

COLLECTION OF DATA

The data required for the assessment of Socio economic status and Sports achievements of each student was collected from the respective schools, through school records and documents, and also through interview method.

SCORING OF DATA

The duly filled questionnaire and the information sought from the official documents, school records and also from personal interviews were tabulated for the purpose of data analysis. The information was analyzed separately and all the information was tabulated in numerals.

APPLICATION OF STATISTICAL TECHNIQUES

For the analysis and interpretation of the data, frequency tables and percentages, Pearson's coefficient correlation and 't' tests were worked out separately to find out influence of Socio economic status on sports achievements of the residential school students. The gathered scores are assessed, operated statistically, evaluated, interpreted and reported. The percentage analysis, coefficient of correlation and 't' test were executed in this investigation to construct the results of the study.

ANALYSIS OF DATA

The researcher covers the descriptive and statistical analysis and also the results of the study in order to study the influence of Socio Economic Status on Sports Achievements of residential school students in Bangalore and Mysore District.

The variables chosen for the study are:

a) Socio-Economic Status

b) Sports Achievement

For testing the significant differences in the Socio economic status and sports achievement in selected schools of residential schools of Bangalore and Mysore districts. The obtained data were analyzed statistically with descriptive statistics, simple statistics and 't' test. The Percentage, Mean, Standard Deviation (SD) were calculated. The hypotheses are tested through 't' test was calculated at 0.05 and 0.01 level of significance.

NATURE AND CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SAMPLE

In the present study, descriptive analysis, and't' test statistical technique has been used. The assumptions underlying the use of 't' test for the significance of the difference between mean assumes normality of the distributions of the variables in the populations from which the samples are drawn. In the present study, samples based on random method, that they are representative of their populations and the testing of the sample distributions for normality will hold good as a test of normality of populations. Therefore to see, if these assumptions have been fulfilled the sample characteristics and the distribution of samples have been examined.

The data for the present study was obtained by the residential high school students of selected schools of Bangalore and Mysore Districts. The sample details are given in the following Tables.

Table-2

Table showing the distribution of sample based on school management.

Sl. No.

Type of School Management

Frequency

Percentage

1

Government

1

2.80

2

Government Aided

8

22.20

3

Morarji Desai

4

11.10

4

Navodaya

3

8.30

5

Private Unaided

11

30.60

6

International Schools

9

25.00

Total

36

100.00

The above table clearly depicts the, number and type of residential schools selected for the present study. It is clear from the table no-2 that, 36 residential schools were selected for the study, out of which 1 (2.80%) are government schools, 8 (22.20%) schools are Government Aided institutions, 4 (11.10%) were Morarji Desai residential schools, 3 (8.30%) Navodaya residential schools, 11 (30.60%) schools were purely private unaided schools with State and CBSE syllabus while 9 (25.00%) of them are purely international schools with CBSE and ICSE syllabus.

Table-3

Table showing the distribution of the schools based on district.

Sl. No.

District

Frequency

Percentage

1

Bangalore

27

75.00

2

Mysore

9

25.00

Total

36

100.00

It was clearly evident from the above table that, out of 36 residential schools considered for the study, 27 (75%) schools are situated in Bangalore while only 09 (25%) of the schools are of Mysore district.

RESIDENTIAL SCHOOL STUDENTS' SPORTS ACHIEVEMENT

Table-4

Table showing District level sports achievements of various residential schools during the year 2006-09.

Sl. No.

Types of residential schools

Participation

Gold

Silver

Bronze

Total

%

1.

Government

11

0

0

0

0

0.00

2.

Government Aided

99

68

50

17

135

29.00

3.

Morarji Desai

41

05

11

05

21

4.50

4.

Navodaya

17

14

06

06

26

5.50

5.

Private Unaided

79

54

45

14

113

24.10

6.

International

66

104

43

25

172

36.90

Total

313

245

155

67

467

100.00

The above table shows the school wise sports achievement during the year 2006-09.

It further reveals that, the international school students achieved more than Government Aided and Private Unaided schools, whereas in Morarji and Navodaya schools achievement of students was very poor. There was no achievement in the Government residential schools.

Table-5

Table showing National level sports achievements of various residential schools during the year 2006-09.

Sl. No.

Types of residential schools

Participation

Gold

Silver

Bronze

Total

%

1.

Government

-

-

-

-

-

-

2.

Government Aided

34

-

2

-

2

28.00

3.

Morarji Desai

4

-

-

-

-

-

4.

Navodaya

2

1

1

-

2

28.00

5.

Private Unaided

23

-

-

-

-

-

6.

International

81

1

2

-

3

44.00

Total

144

2

5

-

7

100.00

It was evident from the above table that, the International residential schools students achieved more at National level than Navodaya and Government Aided schools, but there was no participation and achievement in the Morarji and Government schools.

MEAN AND STANDARD DEVIATION

SPORTS ACHIEVEMENT

Table-6

Table showing comparison of Mean scores and Standard Deviation of residential secondary school students' Sports Achievement.

Sl. No.

Variable

Number

Mean

Standard Deviation

1.

Gender

Boys

335

7.035

5.740

Girls

113

5.911

5.414

2.

Sports Group

Individual Event

137

6.948

5.279

Team Games

311

6.665

5.847

3.

District

Bangalore

337

7.513

6.086

Mysore

111

4.441

3.249

4.

Type of School

Government

11

1.000

0.001

Government Aided

130

5.946

5.061

Morarji Desai

37

3.324

2.687

Navodaya

43

10.767

6.097

Private Unaided

109

7.825

5.631

International

118

6.796

5.950

5

Medium of Instruction

State

206

5.203

4.557

CBSE

113

9.345

6.434

ICSE

129

6.953

5.757

6

Socio Economic Status

Low

242

5.677

10.434

High

206

8.014

9.586

It was evident from the above table that, comparison mean scores of residential secondary school students' sports achievement are due to variations in their gender, group, district, type of school, medium of instruction, and socio-economic status levels.

RELATIONSHIP WITH DEPENDENT AND INDEPENDENT VARIABLES ('r' value).

Hypothesis-1

There was no significant relationship between Socio-Economic Status and Sports Achievement of residential School students.

Table-7

Table showing Number (N), Degree of Freedom (Df), 'r' value and level of significance between Socio-Economic Status and Sports Achievement of residential school students.

Variable

N

Df (N-2)

'r'

Level of Significance

Socio-Economic Status and Sports Achievement

448

446

0.113

*

* Significant at 0.05 level.

Table-7 represents the co-efficient correlation between Socio-Economic Status and Sorts Achievement of residential school students.

The obtained 'r' value was 0.113, which shows a significant positive relationship at 0.05 level ('r' critical value 0.098) between Socio-Economic Status and Sports Achievement of residential school students. Hence, the stated hypothesis was rejected and an alternative hypothesis has been formulated that "there was a significant positive relationship between Socio-Economic Status and Sports Achievement of residential school students". It concludes that elevated socio-economic status has higher sports achievement and vice versa.

EFFECT OF INDEPENDENT VARIABLE ON THE DEPENDENT VARIABLES ('t' TEST)

Hypothesis-3

There was no significant difference in the Sports Achievement between residential secondary school students belonging to Bangalore and Mysore districts.

Table-8

Table showing Mean, Standard Deviation, 't' value and Level of Significance of Sports Achievement between secondary school residential students belonging to Bangalore and Mysore districts.

Variable

Group

Mean

Standard Deviation

't' value

Level of Significance

District

Bangalore

337

7.513

6.086

6.784

**

Mysore

111

4.441

3.249

** Significant at 0.01 level.

Table-8 shows that, the Mean and Standard Deviation of Sports Achievement scores of residential secondary school students belonging to Bangalore and Mysore districts were analyzed.

It also reveals that, the obtained 't' value 6.784 is greater than the table value 1.97 at 0.05 level and 2.59 at 0.01 level of significance with df of 446. Hence, the stated hypothesis was rejected and an alternative hypothesis was formulated that "there was a significant difference in the Sports Achievement between residential secondary students belonging to Bangalore and Mysore Districts."

It can be concluded that, the residential school students belonging to Bangalore district (M=7.513) have superior Sports Achievement than Mysore district (M=4.441).

Hypothesis-4

There was no significant difference in the Sports Achievement between residential secondary school students having low and high socio economic status.

Table-9

Table showing Mean, Standard Deviation, 't' value and Level of Significance of Sports Achievement between secondary school residential students having low and high socio-economic status.

Variable

Group

Mean

Standard Deviation

't' value

Level of Significance

Socio Economic Status

Low

242

5.677

4.909

4.350

**

High

206

8.014

6.239

** Significant at 0.01 level.

Table-9 shows that, the Mean and Standard Deviation of Sports Achievement scores of residential secondary school students having low and high socio-economic status was analyzed.

The obtained 't' value 4.350 is greater than the table value 1.97 at 0.05 level and 2.59 at 0.01 level of significance with df of 446. Hence, the stated hypothesis was rejected and an alternative hypothesis was formulated that "there was a significant difference in the Sports Achievement between residential secondary students having low and high socio-economic status."

It can be concluded that, the residential school students having high socio economic status (M=8.014) have superior Sports Achievement than low socio-economic status (M=5.677).

Hypothesis-5

There was no significant difference in the Sports Achievement among residential school students studying in different type of syllabus.

Table-10

One-way Analysis of Variance for Sports Achievement among residential school students studying in different type of syllabus.

Source of Variance

df

sum of squares

Mean Squares

F-ratio

Between the Groups

5

1258.800

629.400

21.317*

Within the Groups

442

13.138.698

29.525

Total

447

14397.498

* Significant at 0.01 level. t (0.05, 446) = 3.86

t (0.01, 446) = 6.70

Table-10 reveals that, the obtained F-ratio 21.317 for Sports Achievement between the groups and within the groups were statistically significant as F-ratio was greater than the Table Value at 0.01 the level of significance. Hence the stated hypothesis was rejected and an alternative hypothesis formulated that "there was a significant difference in the Sports Achievement among residential school students studying in different type of syllabus."

4.2 DISCUSSION OF HYPOTHESES

The following hypotheses were tested

Results of Correlation 'r' value :

1. There was no significant relationship between Socio-Economic Status and Sports Achievement of residential school students. The stated hypothesis was rejected. The stated hypothesis was rejected and alternative hypothesis formulated that "there was a significant positive relationship between Socio-Economic Status and Sports Achievement of residential school students."

Results of 't' Test :

1. There was no significant difference in the Sports Achievement between residential secondary school boys and girls. The stated hypothesis was accepted.

2. There was no significant difference in the Sports Achievement between residential secondary students belonging to Bangalore and Mysore Districts. The stated hypothesis was rejected and alternative hypothesis formulated that "there was a significant difference in the Sports Achievement between residential secondary students belonging to Bangalore and Mysore Districts. "

3. There was no significant difference in the Sports Achievement between residential secondary students having low and high socio-economic status. The stated hypothesis was rejected and alternative hypothesis has been formulated that "there was a significant difference in the Sports Achievement between residential secondary students having low and high socio-economic status."

DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS

The following were the major findings of the study:

Results of Correlation 'r' value:

1. There was a significant positive relationship between Socio-Economic Status and Sports Achievement of residential school students. The elevated socio-economic status has higher sports achievement and vice versa.

It is clear from the table 8 that, higher the socio-economic status greater would be the achievement of a student as compared to the student with low socio-economic status. It is observed that, students having more Socio-Economic Status are easily accessible to fetch better equipments and training which in turn helps him to perform better.

Results of 't' Test:

1. There was a significant difference in the Sports Achievement between residential secondary students belonging to Bangalore and Mysore Districts. The residential school students belonging to Bangalore district (M=7.513) have superior Sports Achievement than Mysore district (M=4.441).

2. There was a significant difference in the Sports Achievement between residential secondary students having low and high socio-economic status. The residential school students having high socio economic status (M=8.014) have superior Sports Achievement than low socio-economic status (M=5.677).

3. The higher the socio-economic status greater would be the achievement of a student as compared to the student with less socio-economic status. It is observed that, students having more Socio-Economic Status are easily accessible to fetch better equipments and training which in turn helps him to perform better.

SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS

SUMMARY OF THE STUDY

Socio-Economic Status was a powerful agent in creating the cultural environment in which individuals are reared. The cultural environment provides processes through which expectations are learnt about such roles as mother, husband, student, teacher, banker, plumber, or politician.

Hence the researcher intended to find out the influence of socio-economic status of the students on their Sports Achievement.

Survey method was employed to study the influence of socio-economic status on sports achievements of student's studying in selected residential schools of Bangalore and Mysore districts.

The subjects were randomly selected from residential schools of Bangalore and Mysore districts in consultation with the experts in the field.

The samples selected for the study are as below:

  1. Students of 08th, 09th and 10th standards with in the stipulated academic years of 2006-07, 2007-08, 2008-09 respectively.
  2. Students who have at least participated in District, Division or State, National and International level in any of the sports discipline.
  3. Samples were selected from different residential schools such as, Government, Government Aided, Navodaya, Morarji Desai, International Public Schools, Private Residential schools with State, CBSE and ICSE syllabus of Bangalore and Mysore districts.
  4. The samples considered for the study was 448 out of 36 residential schools of Bangalore and Mysore districts.

The investigator was highly interested in observing the effect of "Influence of socio-economic status of the parents of children on sports achievement among the students of residential schools. For the purpose of the study survey method is employed and the variables for the study are listed below ;

  1. Socio-Economic Status.
  2. Sports Achievements

To obtain the data pertaining to the sports facilities, socio-economic status, sports and academic achievements of residential school students separate questionnaires were constructed for each variable The questionnaires were distributed to the subjects personally to get their response. The data required for the assessment of Socio-Economic Status of each student was collected from the respective schools, through school records and documents, and also through interview method.

5.2 CONCLUSIONS

Within the limitations of the study the following conclusions were drawn:

1. It was observed from the study that, there was a significant positive relationship between Sports facilities and Sports Achievement of residential school students. The enhanced sports facilities have higher sports achievement and vice versa.

2. It was evident from the study that, there was a significant positive relationship between Socio-Economic Status and Sports Achievement of residential school students. The elevated socio-economic status has higher sports achievement and vice versa.

3. The study further reveals that, there was no significant difference in the Sports Achievement between residential secondary school students who have participated at individual event and team games.

4. The study brings out that, there was a significant difference in the Sports Achievement between residential secondary students belonging to Bangalore and Mysore districts.

5. The present study shows that, there was a significant difference in the Sports Achievement between residential secondary school students having low and high socio-economic status.

6. The study reveals that, there was a significant difference in the Sports Achievement among secondary school students studying in different type of residential schools.

REFERENCES

1. Baig, Rahim A., "The Influence of Socio-Economic Background on the Vocational Interests of the High School Boys and Girls in Madras city", Unpublished M.Ed., Thesis, Annamalai University, (1983).

2. Chapin F.S., "A Quantitative Scale for Rating the Home and the Social". Environment of middle class families in an urban Environment. A first approximation to the Measurement of Socio-economic status," Journal Edn.Psy (1928), 19: 99-111.

3. Chaudhari, V.S., Vaidya, S., Navalakha, N.G. and Mahapatra, B.C., "Effect of Teaching Strategies and Socio-Economic Status on Self Concept of the Learner", Indian Psy. Rev., (1998), 50(4): 216-223.

4. Curry, L.A., Snyder, C.R., Cook, D.L., Ruby. B.C., and Rehm, M., "Role of Hope in Academic and Sport Achievement", Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, (1997), 73:1257-1267.

5. Trudeau, François and Shephard, Roy J., "Physical Education, School Physical Activity, School Sports and Academic Performance", International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity (2008), 5:10.


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