The NAPESS Journal of Physical Education & Sports Science, Under the aegis of NAPESS
ISSN 2229 – 7049 NAPESS – Journal Of Physical Education And Sports Science (Print)
ISSN 2229 – 7316 NAPESS – Journal Of Physical Education And Sports Science (Online)
12010 Vol: 1 Issue: 2010

SOCIAL CLASS DIFFERENCES IN SPORTS PARTICIPATION AMONG FEMALE STUDENTS OF CAPITAL CITIES IN PAKISTAN

Author: Prof. Dr. YASMEEN IQBAL —  Co-Author: Director, Centre for Health & Physical Education, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan —  Date: 2010-01-01

Abstract: Physical Education is assuming a greater role in the social system of the nations all over the world. Its importance has been widely accepted as it inculcates responsibility and leadership qualities among youth in a democratic society. Comparatively Health & Physical Education is new academic discipline in Pakistan and Sport psychology has emerged as one of the important courses being taught in academics at colleges and universities. Richard Cox (2002) cited in Encyclopedia of Psychology has rightly viewed sport and exercise as a vehicle for human enrichment. It is argued that one can investigate various trends of Physical Education that contribute their resources to the maximum in helping an individual to achieve a fuller growth and desired performance in physical activity. It also explores dominant factors that play a vital role in the development of attitudes of the youth that help immensely in the promotion of national integration (Carron, A. 1980)

-*-*-*-

Introduction

Physical Education is assuming a greater role in the social system of the nations all over the world. Its importance has been widely accepted as it inculcates responsibility and leadership qualities among youth in a democratic society. Comparatively Health & Physical Education is new academic discipline in Pakistan and Sport psychology has emerged as one of the important courses being taught in academics at colleges and universities. Richard Cox (2002) cited in Encyclopedia of Psychology has rightly viewed sport and exercise as a vehicle for human enrichment. It is argued that one can investigate various trends of Physical Education that contribute their resources to the maximum in helping an individual to achieve a fuller growth and desired performance in physical activity. It also explores dominant factors that play a vital role in the development of attitudes of the youth that help immensely in the promotion of national integration (Carron, A. 1980)

In view of the changing trends in respect of modernizing physical education, this paper has been prepared as an attempt to divert the attention of the society towards female sport participation, as it exists in different colleges of the capital cities of Pakistan and the provinces such as, Islamabad (Pakistan), Karachi (Sindh), Lahore (Punjab), Quetta (Balouchistan) and Peshawar (NWFP) to give Physical Education a professional meaning for the integration and total development of girl's personality. It refers to categories of people who share an economic position in society based on a combination of their income, wealth, education, occupation, and social connections.

Considering the importance of sports Values and attitudes, the social class differentiation based on the sports participation has been examined

through their family background information, collected from sports participants regarding their socio-economic-status such as parent occupation, family structures (Joint nucleus) hobbies, personal interest, parent's education, residential area and maternal attitude towards sports. Earlier, no attempt has been made to study such a problem in Pakistan.

In most of the tradition-bound societies of South Asia, number of widely held beliefs, though scientifically inaccurate, might compel parents discouraging their daughters to participate in sports. However, the fact remains that societal dogmas make the task of coaches quite difficult in Pakistan, largely because of some widely held beliefs include that strenuous physical activity will harm the delicate female reproductive system; women athletes are genetically and physically freak (Coakley J 2001); region doesn't permit a Muslim girl to participate in competitive sports; female participating in competitive sports eventually loses their femininity, and girls should be oriented towards the traditional role of becoming housewives (7»'di, S. 1975). The main concentration of this research work is to is to explore the ideal personality traits of college girl-students (Item-level analysis); identify social class belongingness of girls sport participants in the colleges of the capital cities of Pakistan.

Methodology:

In analyzing the sports culture of Pakistan mainly relating to social class differences in sport participation among female college students of five capitals cities of the Pakistan and the provinces were selected where girls participation in sports competitions at various Boards and Universities is comparatively higher than other cities. The research was conducted by personal visits and interviews to assess socio-cultural, conditions of these cities and through various questionnaires administered on the sample of 500 girls of different colleges of these five capital cities, selected randomly and administered among middle and working class family students to collect viable data largely through Personal Information Questionnaire (PIQ), and Adjective Check List (ACL) and also receiving reasonably good guidance from available literature of Euro-American physical educationalists related to this work ever conducted in Pakistan. The libraries of the Universities of Karachi, Punjab, Sindh and the seminar library of my own Centre for Health & Physical Education at University of Sindh, Jamshoro were very useful in the enrichment of the resources concerning this study.

SAMPLE

The sample of 500 college girls sport participants were selected randomly from the following Five capital cities belonging to middle class and working class families as under:

Table-1

City wise classification of the samples

Capital Cities of provinces Middle Class N=250 Working Class N=250 Total N-500
Karachi 60 60 120
Lahore 70 70 140
Quetta 40 40 80
Peshawar 40 40 80
Islamabad 40 40 80
Total 250 250 500

 

RESULTS OF THE STUDY

Note:- Personal Information Questionnaire (PIQ) was administered to college girl students, selected randomly from capital cities understudy to measure the background characteristics of sport participants such as age, education, socio-economic status, and place of birth.

Table 2

Characteristics of Sport participants of Karachi City

Background Characteristics Middle Class (N=60) Working Class (N=60)
1. Education f   f  
First Year 10 16.6 30 50
Second Year 17 28.3 20 33.3
B.A / B.Sc 33 55 10 16.6
2. Place of Birth
Rural 5 8.3 02 3.3
Urban 55 91.6 58 96.6
3. Participation from academic class:
Vm_Metric 20 33.3 32 53.3
Intermediate 16 @ 26.6 20 33.3
B.A / B.Sc 24 40 8 13.3
4. Encouragement from family / parents
Yes 28 46.6 45 75
No 32 53.3 15 25

Four important characteristics according to the requirement of research were selected to examine the education wise participation in sports, area wise participations, involvement in sports from particular academic class and encouragement of parents.

The percentage indicates that the parents belonging to working class encourage their daughters more as compared to middle class. The ratio of the participation of middle class at B.A / B.Sc level is higher than working class; it is observed that due to financial weakness they could not send their daughters for higher education. The scores of middle class participation in sports from rural area are higher than working class. This shows the awareness of sports activities of the middle class families belonging to rural areas, whereas the scores of working class families belong to urban areas showed their interest in sports higher than middle class participants.

Note: 50% or More Endorsements of the Middle and Working class female college students on adjective check list (ACL) has been obtained to analyze the results of all capital cities of Pakistan under study:-

(Table-3) Karachi City

Sr.

Adjective

Middle
Class N=60

Working
Class N=60

 

 

F

%

f

%

1

Adaptable

45

75

59

98.3

2

Affectionate

40

66.6

58

96.7

3

Ambitious

58

96.7

40

66.6

4

Attractive

54

90

45

75.3

5

Autocratic

56

93.3

45

75

6

Active

20

33.3

38

63.3

7

Capable

50

83.3

40

66.6

8

Civilized

58

96.7

45

75

9

Confident

44

73.3

57

95

10

Co-operative

54

90.3

56

93.3

11

Demanding

50

83.3

35

58.3

12

Determined

47

78.3

59

98.3

13

Energetic

45

75

55

91.7

14

Enthusiastic

52

86.7

40

66.6

15

Foresighted

30

50

55

91.7

16

Forgiving

52

86.6

55

91.7

17

Generous

47

78.3

45

75

18

Helpful

50

83.3

57

95

19

Hopeful

45

75

57

95

20

Intelligent

57

95

40

66.6

21

Initiative

45

75

57

95

22

Mature

56

93.3

59

9P.3

23

Persistent

58

96.7

50

83.3

24

Practical

51

85

56

93.3

25

Planful

38

63.3

50

83.3

26

responsible

56

93.3

59

98.3

27

Self confident

58

96.7

45

75

28

Straight forward

45

75.3

54

90

29

Strong

30

50

56

93.3

30

Un-excitable

31

51.7

45

75

Out of 30 adjectives, the perception of the respondents of both groups are more or less simi­lar on given adjectives, but in some adjectives we find clear difference of opinion such as ac­tive, confident, determined, foresighted, and strong. The scores of working class are higher than middle class sport participants. Where as middle class focus more on autocratic, ambitious, intelligent, and responsible. This analysis pro­vide meaningful basis for comparison with both classes, which will be helpful for coaches to train the athletes considering their psychological per­ceptions

 

Table - 4

Background Characteristics of Sport participants of Lahore City

Background Characteristics

Middle Class

Working Class

 

N=70

N=70

1 Education

f

%

f

%

First Year

25

35.7

33

47.1

Second Year

30

42.8

30

42.8

B.A/B.Sc

15

21.4

07

IO

2 Place of Birth

Rural

10

14.2

4

5.7

Urban

60

85.7

64

91.4

3 Participation from academic class:-

VIII-Matric

30 42.8

40

57.1

Intermediate

25 35.7

27

38.5

B.A/B.Sc

15 21.43

3

4.2

4 Encouragement from family / parents

Yes

50

71.4

65

92.8

No

20

28.5

5

7.1

Table 3 shows the percentage scores 'of the respondents on given characteristics, approve that working class sport participants are more involved in sporting activities as compared to middle class participants.

The percentage indicates that the parents be­long to working class families encourage their daughters more as compared to middle class families. Further the participants of middle class families start sports activities from schools whereas the working class participants show their involvement from college level, where facilities are available to attract them.

The same adjective check list was also provided to Lahore based girls under study and they responded as under:

Table-5 (Lahore City)

Sr.

Adjectives

Middle Class N=70

Working Class N=70

 

 

f

%

f

%

1

Adaptable

55

78.5

66

94.2

2

Affectionate

64

91.4

52

74.2

3

Ambitious

60

85.7

66

94.2

4

Attractive

64

91.4

52

74.2

5

Autocratic

68

97.1

40

57.1

6

Active

55

78.5

66

94.2

7

Capable

45

64.2

50

71.4

8

Civilized

66

94.2

60

85.7

9

Confident

64

91.4

66

94.2

10

Co-operative

50

71.4

66

94.2

11

Demanding

68

97.1

45

64.2

12

Determined

68

97.1

60

85.7

13

Energetic

40

57.1 ,

68

97.1

14

Enthusiastic

64

91.4

52

74.2

15

Foresighted

50

71.4

66

94.2

16

Forgiving

50

71.4

60

85.7

17

Generous

40

57.1

64

91.4

18

Helpful

55

78.5

66

94.2

19

Hopeful

65

92.8;

50

71.4

20

Intelligent

60

85.7 ; ,

40

57.1

21

Initiative

64

91.4

45

64.2

22

Mature

60

85.7'

66

94.2

23

Persistent

40

57.1

60

85.7

24

Practical

60

85.7

66

94.2

25

Planful

64

91.4

58

82.8

26

Responsible

50

71.4

66

94.2

27

Self confident

60

85.7

64

91.4

28

Straight forward

64

91.4

68

97.1

29

Strong

45

64.2

69

98.5

30

Un-excitable

64

91.4

40

57.1

Table 4 shows the difference of opinion on many of the adjectives between middle and working class sport participants, such as on adjectives-autocratic, demanding, intelligent and initiative. The middle class scored higher whereas on adjectives-active, energetic, cooperative and strong working class scored higher. It was also found that some adjectives socially disapproved in Pakistani society, the middle class has indicated more clearly than the working class. That shows the difference of attitude between the two groups involved in same activity. In the light of the perceptions of both groups, coach has to provide emotional and informational minnnrt in Fithletes for their well-being, motivation and performance.

The 40 college girls each from Middle and Working class were selected randomly and administered the same (PIQ), and they responded as under:

Table-6

Background Characteristics of Sport participants of Quetta City

 

Background Cliaracteristics

Middle Class

Working Class

 

 

N=40

N=40

1

Education

f

%

f

%

 

First Year

19

47.5

26

65

 

Second Year

16

40

12

30

 

B.A/B.Sc

05

12.5

02

5

2   Place of Birth

Rural

4

10

2

5

Urban

36

90

38

95

3   Participation from academic class:-

VIII-Metric

14

35

31

77.5

Intermediate

17

42.5

07

17.5

B.A/ B.Sc

09

22.5

02

5

4   Encouragement from family parents

Yes

12

'30

22

55

No

28

70

18

45


Table 5 indicates that the ratio of the participants of both groups at Degree level is very low. 13 While discussion with Director Sports informed that most of the girls coming from rural areas rarely attend classes and parents do not encourage them to participate in sports activities. The girls belonging to middle class start playing games when they reach B.A/ B.Sc level, whereas the working class participants start sports activities from Matric class.

The forty number of female college students each from Middle and working clad were provided the same ACL and they responded as under:

Table-7 (Quetta City)

Adjective Check List of Quetta City.

Sr.

Adjectives

Middle Class N=40

Working Class N=40

 

 

F

%

f

%

1

Adaptable

39

97.5

25

62.5

2

Affectionate

33

82.5

39

97.5

3

Ambitious

38

95

20

50

4

Attractive

36

90

20

50

5

Autocratic

34

85

28

70

6

Active

25

62.5

39

97.5

7

Capable

35

87.5

24

60

8

Civilized

30

75.5

32

80

9

Confident

32

80

34

85

10

Co-operative

28

70

33

82.5

11

Demanding

33

82.5

19

47.5

12

Determined

39

97.5

38

95

13

Energetic

30

75

34

85

14

Enthusiastic

34

85

20

50

15

Foresighted

19

47.5

38

95

16

Forgiving

25

62.5

30

"4775

17

Generous

20

50

28

70

18

Helpful

32

80

34

85

19

Hopeful

17

4.2.5

28

70

20

Intelligent

21

5:2.5

29

72.5

21

Initiative

20

50

28

70

22

Mature

37

92.5

25

62.5

23

Persistent

34

85

28

70

24

Practical

32

80

36

90

25

Planful

24

60

36

90

26

responsible

30

75

38

95

27

Self confident

23

57.5

28

70

28

Straight forward

37

92.5

36

90

29

Strong

35

87.5

39

97.5

30

Un-excitable

19

47.5

35

87.5

Table 6 shows that the working class endorsed more on adjectives such as active, energetic and strong whereas middle class girls emphasize on autocratic, attractive, confident, demanding, enthusiastic and mature. The objective to collect the data on these adjectives was to understand the feelings and thinking of the athlete to develop effective coordination between perceptions of the athlete and the coach, so that coach may train them considering their potential, agility, aptitude and providing them social and psychological support.

The same number of respondents were approached belongings to both classes of society and their response was as under:

 

Table-8 (Peshawar City)

Background Characteristics of Sport participants of Peshawar City

 

Background Characteristics

Middle Class N=40

Working Class N=40

1

Education

f

%

f

%

 

First Year Second Year B.A/B.Sc

03 13 24

7.5 32.5 60

10 18 12

25 45 30

2   Place of Birth

 

Rural Urban

10 30

25 75

07 33

17.5 82.5

3   Participation from academic class

 

VIII-Matric Intermediate B.A/B.Sc

23 11 6

57.5 27.51 15

28 08 04

70 20 10

4   Encouragement from family / parents

 

Yes No

23 17

57.5 42.5

15 25

37.50 62.50

Table 7 shows the maximum number, of sport participation at B.A/ B.Sc level in both groups. The participation in sports from rural areas is lower as compared to urban area, which clearly indicates that parent belonging to middle class families encouraging their daughters more as compared to working class in Peshawar. The re­sults verify that middle class families are more involved towards sports activities than working class.

The same number of college girls from middle and working class families responded to the adjectives as under:

Table-9 (Peshawar City)

Sr.

Adjectives

Middle Class N=40

Working Class N=40

 

 

f

%

f

%

1

Adaptable

32

80

36

90

2

Affectionate

25

62.5

37

92.5

3

Ambitious

38

95

20

50

4

Attractive

38

95

35

87.5

5

Autocratic

35

87.5

25

62.5

6

Active

26

65

39

97.5

7

Capable

34

85

24

60

8

Civilized

33

82.5

26

65

9

Confident

38

95

31

77.5

10

Co-operative

20

50

38

95

11

Demanding

36

90

20

50

12

Determined

29

72.5

35

87.5

13

Energetic

30

75

36

90

14

Enthusiastic

21

52.5

38

95

15

Foresighted

16

40

36

90

16

Forgiving

24

60

32

80

17

Generous

18

45

32

80

18

Helpful

26

65

36

90

19

Hopeful

32

80

35

87.5

20

Intelligent

36

90

28

90

21

Initiative

23

57.5

38

95

22

Mature

38

95

33

82.5

23

Persistent

31

77.5

32

80

24

Practical

28

60

38

95

25

Planful

34

85

20

50

26

Responsible

30

75

37

92.5

27

Self confident

26

65

39

97.5

28

Straight forward

34

85

38

95

29

Strong

30

75

36

90

30

Un-excitable

14

35

29

72.5

Table 8 indicates the higher scores of middle class on adjectives adaptable, affectionate, autocratic, ambitious, attractive, confident, demanding and stable whereas working class focus more on adjectives enthusiastic, foresighted, generous, strong and un-excitable. Thus, it is necessary for coach to learn about the perceptions of each athlete: how she interacts and responds to the environment and differs in terms of their personalities. By understanding these important factors she will be better prepared to understand how anxiety and mood affect athletic performance; how various cognitive and behavioral interventions can modify an athlete's mood..

The same number of college girls from middle and working class families of Islamabad, the capital city of Pakistan was administrated and their response to the given adjectives as under

Table-10 (Islamabad City)

Background Characteristics of Sport participants of Islamabad City

 

Background Characteristics

Middle Class N=40

Working Class N=40

1.

Education

f

%

f    |    %

 

First Year

20

50

22   |    55

 

Second Year

12

30

14

35

 

B.A/B.Sc

8

20

4

10

2    Place of Birth

 

Rural

06

15

02   '    05

 

Urban

34

85

38        95

3    Participation from academic class

 

VIII-Matric

12

30

30

75

 

Intermediate

23

57.5

07

17.5

 

B.A/B.Sc

05

12.5

03

7.5

4    Encouragement from family / parents

 

Yes

20

50

37

92.5

 

No

20

50

03

7.5

Table 09 shows the class wise ratio of participation in sports of both groups is more or less the same. The participation score belonging to rural area of middle class is higher as compared to working class; As far as urban area is concerned both groups have similarity in sport participations. The percentage score also shows that working class girls are participating in sports from schools whereas middle class girls start playing games from college level. The percentage ratio of the families of working class encourage their daughters is higher as compared to middle class.

The same number of college girls from middle and working class families in Pakistan's capital city Islamabad, responded to the adjectives as under:

Table-11 (Islamabad City)

Sr.

Adjectives

Middle Class N=40

Working Class N=40

 

 

f

%

f

%

1

Adaptable

29

72.5

27

67.5

2

Affectionate

20

50

37

92.5

3

Ambitious

37

92.5

25

62.5

4

Attractive

28

70

30

75

5

Autocratic

35

87.5

19

47.5

6

Active

19

47.5

36

90

7

Capable

36

90

25

62.5

8

Civilized

34

85

28

70

9

Confident

38

95

30

75

10

Co-operative

34

85

36

90

11

Demanding

34

85

20

50

12

Determined

39

97.5

38

95

13

Energetic

20

50

39

97.5

14

Enthusiastic

38

95

24

60

15

Foresighted

19

47.5

36

90

16

Forgiving

20

50

38

95

17

Generous

29

72.5

27

67.5

18

Helpful

28

70

33

82.5

19

Hopeful

37

92.5

34

85

20

Intelligent

35

87.5

28

70

21

Initiative

36

90

24

60

22

Mature

37

92.5

32

80

23

Persistent

25

62.5

29

72.5

24

Practical

30

75.

28

70

25

Planful

28

70

32

80

26

Responsible

35

87.5

36

90

27

Self confident

37

92.5

35

87.5

28

Straightforward

34

85

29

72.5

29

Strong

17

42.5

39

97.5

30

Un-excitable

20

50

36

90

Table 10 shows that the opinions of both groups on most of the adjectives are very similar. On some adjectives such as autocratic, demanding, enthusiastic and initiative, the percentage scores of middle class are higher whereas the working class considers more on adjectives energetic, foresighted. active and strong. These responses enable the coach to understand each athlete's perceptions while participating in the competitive sports that how much they like playing for the team (individual attraction) and how well they feel the team functions as a unit (group integration), coach may also measure the meaningful relationship between team cohesion and team or individual behavior.

 

Conclusion

On the basis of the results it was found that the sport particulars belonging to working class families in the capital cities of Pakistan and the provinces are hardworking, industrious, strong and determined as compared to middle class sport participants. The study clearly shows that sport participants of both classes need attention of parents and the educational institutions towards sports activities, and desire for adequate incentive on their achievements during competitions. The sense of realization and responses of the girls of both middle and working class sport participants were more or less have the same views, therefore, it was assessed that social class differences do not make any considerable obstacle on their perceptions as expressed by the female participants. Thus, it confirms that the female college students irrespective of social class belongingness tend to perceive greater amount of ideal characteristics in the ideal self.

Further, it was found that the sport participants are more affectionate, smart, and socially strong in tackling the affairs of the society and possess comparatively better societal understanding, predicting, communicating and controlling individual as well as collective behavior of women in the society as compared to non-sport participants. The studies and reports of the physical educationists have verified, to great extent, that physiological problem expressed were mainly on whims and lack of adequate information about women's health care. The women of 21 s' century are participating more in sports and engaging themselves in various physical activities for maintaining the effective physiological responses to bring laurels for Themselves and for the nation, and by enlarge lead to a happy domestic social life.

Exercise can promote physical as well as Psychological stability in women of all ages and make them more physically fit, agile, active and confident than non-athletes. Many studies have shown the importance of regular exercise, and women who exercise at least 4 hours a week reduce their risk of contracting pre-menopausal and breast cancer by 50 and women who exercise 2-3 hours a week reduce their risk by 30. The girls who participate in sports and fitness programs are healthier and have higher self-esteem.

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Vol: 1 Issue: 2010