The NAPESS Journal of Physical Education & Sports Science, Under the aegis of NAPESS
ISSN 2229 – 7049 NAPESS – Journal Of Physical Education And Sports Science (Print)
ISSN 2229 – 7316 NAPESS – Journal Of Physical Education And Sports Science (Online)
12010 Vol: 1 Issue: 2010

DRY - Vs - WET, FITNESS WINS THE BET

Author: Dr. A.M. Najeeb —  Co-Author: Associate Professor,NIT Calicut —  Date: 2010-01-01

Abstract: The presentation is an account of the research study conducted on NIT Calicut campus to test the effectiveness of Wet training –vs- dryland training on the health related physical fitness of the resident university male students. 90 students were randomly assigned to wet- dry- control groups of 30 each, their pre-test measurements recorded, 12-week training assigned to them, final readings recorded, analyzed and results arrived at. The results of the study revealed pertinent advantage of trained student over sedentary counterpart. The study has unearthed research potential in technical campuses and offers scope for bifurcation to newer areas by future researchers.

-*-*-*-

In a nutshell:

The presentation is an account of the research study conducted on NIT Calicut campus to test the effectiveness of Wet training –vs- dryland training on the health related physical fitness of the resident university male students. 90 students were randomly assigned to wet- dry- control groups of 30 each, their pre-test measurements recorded, 12-week training assigned to them, final readings recorded, analyzed and results arrived at. The results of the study revealed pertinent advantage of trained student over sedentary counterpart. The study has unearthed research potential in technical campuses and offers scope for bifurcation to newer areas by future researchers.

Introduction

The sole aim of the study was to convince the authorities of the need for physical education treatment to rectify poor fitness standards on technical education campuses and to initiate appropriate curricular remedies. The Leader of tomorrow- the professional student needs to be fit to shoulder the country’s future. No government would want its doctors, scientists and Engineers to be unfit to practice their respective professions. Hence this calls for Physical educators doing justice by overcoming these maladies through research oriented programmes on the campuses.

Physical Fitness: A term synonymous to health in a limited manner. Is the capacity of an individual to live, function effectively, purposefully and to meet confidently the problems and crisis which are among life’s expectations. Larson and Yocom(1958) have listed Speed, Strength, endurance, flexibility, agility, coordination, balance, accuracy and resistance to diseases as the main components of Physical Fitness.

Health-related Physical Fitness: Rationally, for an average professional student, it will be impossible and unnecessary to try and develop all the physical fitness components listed above. Hence it will be prerogative of a researcher to make sure that a student possesses the bare-minimum vital components that qualify for Health-related Physical Fitness (HRPF). Baumgartner & Jackson (1991) have propagated the need for every individual to possess the HRPF components of:

Sl.No.

H R P F  Characteristics

Parameter chosen for the study

1.

Cardio-respiratory Function

         VO2 Max.

2.

Abdominal & Low back-Hamstring Musculo-skeletal Function.

        
         Flexibility

3.

Body Composition

      Fat Percentage

Objective of the study

Researchers have revealed the multifaceted benefits of training, but how many do benefit from it due to constraints in a country like ours. Creating an awareness in the student is of prime importance and hence a study conducted on the student to quantify the physiological benefits of training would be second to none. He / she will remember that even after leaving the campus.

Statement of the problem

The main purpose of the study was to quantify the physiological benefits of tethered swimming and dry-land training among untrained raw resident university students( of NIT Calicut). The selection of the three HRPF parameters was justifiable mainly because of their relevance, simplicity and easy apprehension by students.

Hypothesis

Substantively and statistically, it was hypothesized that:

1. There would be significant effects due to 12 weeks of tethered swimming(Wet training) and dry-land training on the physiological parameters of the resident university males.

2. The tethered swimming group is likely to benefit better than the dryland group with regard to cardio-respiratory parameter.

3. When compared to the sedentary counterparts, both the training groups would exhibit overall significant response to training.

Significance of the study

1. The findings of the study would provide to the physical education faculty, a specific activity plan to promote HRPF goals on the campuses.

2. The study would prove the physiological superiority of the trained student over the sedentary counterparts.

3. The outcome of the study will educate the administrators of the benefits of Fitness and thereby creating an awareness that will carry through to the post-campus life as well.

4. The findings of the study would add to the knowledge-store house of interdisciplinary research in the field of physical education and other contemporary sciences.

5. The study would contribute greatly to the ongoing endeavours of governments and WHO in creating awareness among people of the need to develop healthy life-style.

6. Such studies alone would motivate the curriculum designers to give due importance to fitness on campuses.

Delimitations

1. The study was delimited to the resident raw untrained students of National Institute of Technology Calicut where all facilities and environment for uninterrupted research were readily accessible on the campus.

2. The researcher, an Associate Professor on the faculty had instant access to infrastructure and student-subjects.

3. The study was further delimited to a cross-section sample of 90 men-students who were randomly assigned to 3 groups of 30 each namely:

‘A’-- The Wet Training group,

‘B’—The Dryland Training group, &

‘C’—The Control group.

4. Group ‘A’ was delimited to Tethered swimming at NITC Swimming Pool and group ‘B’ was confined to 5 stations in NITC Gymnasium while the Control group ‘C’ was left on their own to pursue their choice life style.

5. The parameters were delimited to: (i)VO2 Max. (ii) Flexibility (iii) Fat percentage.

Limitations

1. The fact that the randomly assigned subjects were all in the same campus attending to similar curricular and co-curricular activities was considered a limitation in the study and their individual family back ground, habits, food habits, adaptive abilities to fluctuating environmental conditions were also considered as limitations.

2. Only 12 weeks were, though found adequate, assigned for the research study due to technical education curricular constraints.

3. No attempt was made to regulate climate, temperatures or environmental conditions that may have influenced the subjects during the study period.

4. No specific motivational techniques were resorted to during training, testing or practice due to academic constraints.

Definition of terminology

1. Training & Interval training:

Training is a programme of exercise designed to improve the skills and increase the energy capacity of an athlete for a particular event, Fox(1984). Interval training is a series of repeated bouts of exercise alternating with periods of relief. Light and mild exercise usually constitute this relief period.

2. Tethered Swimming training:

‘Tether’ is a rope, chain etc. preventing an animal from moving away from a restricted locality. It also means having bourne as much as one can bear.

In tethered swimming, the swimmer is attached to a rope tied to a resistance acting in opposite direction that the swimmer intends to move.

Swimming needs energy to maintain buoyancy as well as to generate horizontal movements by arms or legs in combination or separately. Energy is also required to overcome the drag forces that impede movement of objects through fluids. The energy cost of swimming a given distance is about four times greater than running the same distance, McArdle et.al.(1991).

3. VO2 Max. or Aerobic power:

Is defined as the greatest Oxygen uptake obtained by an individual while breathing air at sea levelduring the performance of physical work, Shaver(1972).

VO2 Max. is the maximal oxygen uptake and highest oxygen value per unit of time that the humanbody is capable of when breathing air, Morehouse & Miller(1976).

Special attention is to be directed to VO2 Max. or aerobic power concept, currently highly rated in the Exercise Physiology circles mainly because it enables the individual to utilise maximum amount of oxygen. Clarke, way back in 1976 has approved the use of submaximal exercise levels to measure VO2 Max. instead of the more tedious Gas-Analysis done in the labs. Individuals therefore need to work out at lower levels and their heart rate can be utilized to measure the maximal oxygen uptake.

4. Flexibility:

Singh hardayal (1991) has defined Flexibility as the ability to execute movements with greater amplitude or range. It is often equated with Stretchability, Elasticity, Suppleness, Mobility etc., the first two representing the special qualities of the muscle and ligaments by which these can be stretched and can regain their normal length with out any adverse effects on the concerned tissue.

Review of related literature

The researcher had referred extensively all relevant books, periodicals, journals, dailies, websites and experts pertaining to the study. Most of the leading libraries in the country were visited and 34 research abstracts were reviewed.

Methodology

Selection of subjects:

Ninety (90) male volunteers from among the student population of the NIT calicut between the age group of 18-23 yrs. were recruited for the study on a first-come-first-serve basis. Out of the 90, thirty each were randomly assigned to 2 experimental groups, namely ‘A’ Wet training group, ‘B’ Dryland training group and the remaining 30 to ‘C’ the Control group.

Selection of Variables:

A. Dependent Variables:

B. Independent Variables:

  1. VO2 Max.

Tethered Swimming Training.

  1. Flexibility.

Dryland Interval Training.

  1. Fat Percentage.

 

Orientation and Pilot Study:

An in-depth orientation programme was held to acclimatize the subjects to the training and test environment. A Pilot study was conducted on 5 subjects from each group to ascertain the safe level of intensity, repetition, duration and recovery time of the two trainings in the study. The exercise battery regimen was thus formulated and made known to the subjects.

Training Programme:

TABLE I

TETHERED SWIMMING TRAINING PROGRAMME

PRESCRIPTION FORM ____ WEEK ONE TO TWELVE

Venue: NITC Swimming Pool

Stage Weeks Warm-up Mode of
Training
Intensity Relief Period Repetition Total Duration
First One to Three Jogging around the pool, swim-ming at leisurely pace for five minutes Non-stop swimming against tethered resistance 2 minutes 5 minutes of recovery including leisure-swim 5 Nos. 3Ominutes
Second Four to Six Same as in first stage Same Pres-
criptions as
in stage-first
2 minutes 5 minutes 5 Nos. 3Ominutes
Third Seven to Nine Same as above Same Pres-cription as above 2½ minutes 4 ½  minutes 5 Nos. 3Ominutes
Final Ten to Twelve Same as above Same Pres-cription as above 3minutes 4minutes 5 Nos. 3Ominutes

Note: Throughout the twelve-week wet training programme, the WARMING-DOWN process consisted of relaxed swimming and light jogging for 1 ½ to 2 minutes.

TABLE II

DRYLAND INTERVAL TRAINING PROGRAMME

PRESCRIPTION FORM ____ WEEK ONE TO TWELVE

Venue: NITC Gymnasium

Stage

Weeks

Warm-up

Mode of Training

Intensity

Relief Period

Total Duration

First

One to
Three

Jogging and light calisthenics for 3-5 minutes

a) Non-stop Skipping
b) Non-stop Treadmill Running
c) Exercycle Pedaling
d) Sit-ups on Abdominal   conditioner
e) Aerobic stand work-out

5 minutes
5 minutes

5 minutes

3 minutes
4 minutes

2 minutes of light jogging and calisthe-nics between each exercise bout

30 minutes

Second

Four to Six

Same as in first stage

Same prescription as above

Same as above

Same relief period as above

30 minutes

Third

Seven
to Nine

Same as above

a) Skipping
b)Treadmill Running
c) Exercycle Pedaling
d) Situps on abdominal conditioner
e) Aerobic stand work-out

5½ minutes
5½ minutes
5½ minutes

3 minutes
4½ minutes

1½ minutes of light jogging and calisthe­nics between each exercise bout

30 minutes

Final

Ten to
Twelve

Same as above

a) Skipping
b)Treadmill Running
c) Exercycle Pedaling
d) Situps on abdominal conditioner
e) Aerobic stand work-out

6 minutes
6 minutes
6 minutes

3 minutes
5 minutes

1 minute light jogging and calisthenics between each exercise bout

30 minutes

Note: Throughout the twelve-week dryland training programme, the WARMING-DOWN process consisted of 1 to 1½ minutes of calisthenics and light jogging.

Criterion measures:

1. VO2 Max capacity expressed in Litres/ minute was predicted from the ‘Astrand Rhyming Nomogram’ using submaximal heart rate recorded from Treadmill monitor and the body weight of subjects.

2. Flexibility parameter was meaed by SIT & REACH Tester approved by American Association of Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance(1988). The Sit & reach tester Box was used to measure the data which was represented in centimeters.

3. Fat Percentage or the degree of obesity is based on the amount of fat that is contained in the body. It is generally felt that men should not exceed 15 to 20% body fat, and women 25 to 30%. Hirsch and Knittle (1970). Most of the research literature substantiates the notion that regular physical exercise has a favourable effect on body composition for individual of all ages. The concern over the increased incidence of obesity in the campus was one of the factors that influenced the researcher to include fat percentage in the present quantification study. Fat fold measurements can provide consistent and meaningful information concerning body fat and its distribution. The ‘sum of fat folds’ for example, can also be used to reflect changes in fatness ‘before’ and ‘after’ a physical condition regimen. Studies conducted on subjects have shown that ‘triceps’ showed the largest decrease and subscapula the smallest decrease when changes due to training was expressed in percentage. Fat folds can be, in conjunction with mathematical equation, used to ‘predict’ percent body fat. These ‘population specific equations’ predict fatness fairly accurately for subjects similar in age, gender, state of training, fatness and probably race, McArdle et.al. (1991).

Based on several laboratory findings, a reliable equation to predict body fat for men aged 17 to 26 years was formulated which is as follows.

% body fat = 0.43 (A) + 0.58 (B) + 1.47

where (A) = triceps fat fold and (B) = Subscapula fat fold.

In the present study, the above universally approved formula was utilized to compute body fat percentage of subjects. Scarpendent skin fold calyper was used to record skinfold measures of triceps and subscapula and the data recorded in numerical (%) values.

Baumgartner and Jackson (1991) have opined that the repeated measurement of the individual on the same test was a univariate, not a bivariate situation. It is distribution of a single variable. Hence it makes sense, and is fit enough to use univariate statistics, like the intra-class correlation co-efficient.

Test Administration:

1. Age of subjects were recorded.

2. Submaximal heart rate was recorded from treadmill .

3. V02 max. was predicted in litres/ minute.

4. Fat percentage was recorded in % age.

5. Flexibility was recorded in cms.

6. Body weight was recorded in Kgs.

The 3 dependable variables of the study VO2 Max., Flexibility & Fat percentage were ascertained using methodology stated above in criterion measures.

Collection of Data

Pretest and Posttest data on the selected physiological parameters were collected , as per the following schedule:

A” Group- Wet training group : Sundays

B” Group- Dryland training group : Saturdays

C” Group- Control group : Fridays.

Statistical Technique:

Analysis of Covariance was used to test the adjusted mean difference of the three variables of the study separately, in order to determine the differences if any among the Wet training, Dryland training and Control groups. If the differences among the adjusted means were found significant, the Scheffe’s Post Hoc Test was applied to determine the significances of the paired mean differences of the three groups, Clarke and Clarke(1972).

Three groups were involved in the study and two trials were conducted on three dependent variables and each trial was twelve weeks apart from pre- to post-test stage. Variables are the characteristics of a population which differ from person to person or object to object, Cohen and Holliday (1979).

TABLE III

STATISTICAL DESIGN ADOPTED IN THIS STUDY INVOLVING 3X2X3 ANOVAS

Treatment (B) varied stages of experimental period

Treatment (A) Training

 

Training and
Measurement
Period

Group-A

Group-B

Group-C

Wet training (Tethered Swimming)

Dryland Training
(Dryland Interval
Training)

Control

Pre-test

Post-test

(Measurement at 00.00 weeks)
(Measurement after 12 weeks)

       A0-1

 

A 1-5

B0-1

 

B 1-5

C0-1

C1-5

A, B and C= Represent Groups, First Subscript=Represent Training Stages

Second Subscript= Represent Testing Stages

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

The chapter deals with the analysis of the data collected from the samples under study as a result of tethered swimming and dryland training. The subjects were selected and assigned groups at random and were not equated in relation to the factors in which they were examined. Hence the mean differences of the 3 groups in pre-test data had to be taken in to account while analyzing the post-test mean differences. This was achieved by application of ANACOVA where-in final means were adjusted to the differences in the initial means and the adjusted means were tested for significance, Clarke & Clarke(1972).

The main purpose of the study was to quantify the effects of tethered swimming and dryland interval training on Physiological variables of V02 max., Fat- percentage and Flexibility possessed by NIT Calicut male-students.

1. RESULTS OF V02 MAX

The analysis of Covariance performed on the data (in litres/ minute)of Pre- and Post-test V02 max values of the two training groups and control group is presented in Table IV. The Pre-test means of Wet training group, Dryland training group and control group were 3.045, 3.258 and 3.138 respectively. The obtained F-ratio was 1.89. Since this was lower than the Table F-ratio of 3.109, it indicated that the difference among the pre-test means were not significant at 0.05 level of confidence (df 2 and 87). The post-test means of variable V02 max were 3.360 for Wet training group, 3.460 for Dryland training group and 3.052 for control group. The obtained F-ratio of 4.83 was seen to be higher than the Table F-ratio of 3.109. Hence the differences among the post-test means were significant at 0.05 level of confidence with degrees of freedom being 2 and 87.

TABLE IV

COMPUTATION OF ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE OF PRE-TEST, POST-TEST AND ADJUSTED POST- TEST ON VO2 MAX OF WET TRAINING, DRYLAND TRAINING AND CONTROL GROUPS

Means

Wet Training

Dryland Training

Control Groups

Source of Variance

Sum of Square

df

Mean Square

Obtained F Value

Pre-test

3.045

3.258

3.138

 

Between

 

0.690

 

2

 

0.500

 

1.89NS

Within

22.790

87

0.264

 

Post-test

3.360

3.460

3.052

Between

2.720

2

1.500

4.83*

Within

26.590

87

0.310

 

Adjusted Post-test Means

3.468

3.343

3.061

Between

2.599

2

1.300

130.00*

Within

1.126

86

0.010

 

Mean Gains

0.315

0.202

0.087

 

*significant at 0.05 level, NS = Not significant Table F-value: 3.109.

The adjusted post-test means of Wet training group, Dryland training group and Control group were 3.468, 3.343 and 3.061 respectively. The obtained F-ratio was 130.00 and since this was higher than the table F-ratio value of 3.109, the adjusted post-test mean differences among the 3 groups were significant at 0.05 level of confidence (df 2 and 86). While the Wet training group was credited with a mean gain of 0.315, the Dryland group recorded a mean gain of 0.202 and the control group 0.087.

Scheffe’s post-hoc test was therefore resorted-to, to findout the significance of ordered adjusted final mean differences among the groups. Table V shows the Scheffe’s post-hoc test results. The ordered adjusted final mean differences for V02 max variable of experimental and control groups were tested for significance against Scheffe’s F-ratio.

The mean difference between Wet training group and Dryland training group was 0.125. The obtained F-ratio value of 18.012 was seen to be higher than the table F-ratio of 3.109. Hence the mean difference between Wet training and Dryland training group was significant at 0.05 level of confidence (df = 2 and 86).

TABLE V

ORDERED ADJUSTED FINAL MEAN DIFFERENCE ON V02 MAX OF CONTROL AND EXPERIMENTAL GROUPS IN ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE AND SCHEFFE’S POST-HOC TEST

(Scores in Litres/Minute)

Wet
Training
Group

Dryland
Training
Group

Control
Group

Mean Difference

Scheffe’s Post-Hoc Test F-ratio

3,468

3.468

3.343

 

3.343

 

3.061

3.061

0.125

0.407

0.282

18.012*

189.654*

90.769*

The Wet training and Control group showed a mean difference of 0.407 between them. Since the obtained F-ratio value of 189.654 was higher than the table F-ratio of 3.109, this mean difference was also significant at 0.05 level of confidence (df = 2 and 86). The mean difference between Dryland training group and Control group was 0.282. It produced a Scheffe’s post-hoc F-ratio of 90.769. Since this value was higher than the Table F-ratio of 3.109, this paired mean difference was also significant at 0.05 level of confidence with degrees of freedom 2 and 86.

 

2. RESULTS OF FLEXIBILITY

The analysis of Covariance on Flexibility data (in centimeters) between pre- and post-test of the three groups, namely Control, Wet training and Dryland training have been presented in Table VI. The Pre­test means of Wet training group, Dryland training group and control group were 25.613, 25.753 and 23.360 respectively. The obtained F-ratio was 4.23. Since this was higher than the Table F-ratio of 3.109, it indicated that the difference among the pre-test means was significant at 0.05 level of confidence (df 2 and 87). The post-test means of variable Flexibility were 26.423 for Wet training group, 26.687 for Dryland training group and 23.250 for control group. The obtained F-ratio of 8.41 was seen to be higher than the Table F-ratio of 3.109. Hence the differences among the post-test means were significant at 0.05 level of confidence with degrees of freedom being 2 and 87.

TABLE VI

COMPUTATION OF ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE OF PRE-TEST, POST-TEST

AND ADJUSTED POST-TEST ON FLEXIBIUTY OF WET TRAINING,

DRYLAND TRAINING AND CONTROL GROUPS

(Scores in Centimeters)

Means

Wet Training

Dryland
Training

Control
Groups

Source of
Variance

Sum of
Square

df

Mean
Square

Obtained F Value

Pre-test

25.613

25.753

23.360

Between

108.250

2

54.000

 

4.23*

Within

1110.940

87

12.770

Post-test

26.423

26.687

23.250

Between

219.500

2
87

110.000

 

8.41*

Within

1137.520

 

13.080

Adjusted
Post-test
Means

25.713

25.835

24.813

Between

17.027

2
86

8.510

 

106.38*

Within

6.712

 

0.080

Mean Gains

0.810

0.933

0.110

 

 

*significant cant at 0.05 level Table F-value: 3.109

The adjusted post-test means of Wet training group, Dryland training group and Control group were 25.713, 25.835 and 24.813 respectively. The obtained F-ratio was 106.380 and since this was higher than the table F-ratio value of 3.109, the adjusted post-test mean differences among the 3 groups were significant at 0.05 level of confidence (df 2 and 86). While the Wet training group was credited with a mean gain of 0.810, the dryland group recorded a mean gain of 0.933 white the control group’s mean gain was 0.110.

Scheffe’s post-hoc test was therefore resorted-to, to findout the significance of ordered adjusted final mean differences among the groups at table VII. The ordered adjusted final mean differences for Flexibility variable of experimental and control groups were tested for significance against Scheffe’s post-hoc F-ratio. The difference between the means of Dryland training group and Wet training group was 0.122. The obtained F-ratio value of 2.866 was seen to be lower than the table F-ratio of 3.109. Hence the mean difference between Dryland training group and Wet training group was not significant at 0.05 level of confidence (df= 2 and 86).

 

TABLE VII

ORDERED ADJUSTED FINAL MEAN DIFFERENCE ON FLEXIBILITY OF CONTROL AND EXPERIMENTAL GROUPS IN ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE

AND SCHEFFE’S POST-HOC TEST

(Scores in Centimeters)

Dryland
Training

Wet
Training

Control
Group

Mean Difference

Scheffe’s    Post-Hoc Test  F-ratio

25.835

25.835

25.713

 

25.713

 

24.813

24.813

0.122

1.022

0.900

2.866

200.862*

155.734*

 

Table F-ratio : 3.109, (df = 2 and 86) * Significant at 0.05 level

The Dryland training group and Control group showed a mean difference of 1.022 between them. Since the obtained F-ratio value of 200.862 was higher than the table F-ratio of 3.109, this mean difference was significant at 0.05 level of confidence (df = 2 and 86).

The mean difference between Wet training group and Control group was 0.900. It also produced a Scheffe’s post-hoc F-ratio of 155.734. Since this value was higher than the Table F-ratio of 3.109, this paired mean difference was also significant at 0.05 level of confidence with degrees of freedom 2 and 86.

 

3. RESULTS OF FAT PERCENTAGE

The analysis of Covariance of Fat Percentage data (in numerical %)of Pre- and Post-test of the two experimental groups and control group is furnished in Table VIII. The data were presented numerically in the form of percentage. The Pre-test means of Wet training group, Dryland training group and control group were 18.251, 18.686 and 19.188 respectively. The obtained F-ratio was 0.44. Since this was lower than the Table F-ratio of 3.109, it indicated that the difference among the pre-test means were not significant at 0.05 level of confidence (df 2 and 87). The post-test means of variable Fat Percentage were 16.260 for Wet training group, 16.075 for Dryland training group and 20.615 for control group. The obtained F-ratio of 15.720 was seen to be higher than the Table F-ratio of 3.109. Hence the differences among the post-test means were significant at 0.05 level of confidence with degrees of freedom being 2 and 87.

TABLE VIII

COMPUTATION OF ANALYSIS OF COVARIANCE OF PRE-TEST, POST-TEST AND ADJUSTED POST- TEST ON FAT PERCENTAGE OF WET TRAINING,DRYLAND TRAINING AND CONTROL GROUPS

(Scores in Numericals)

Means

Wet Training

Dryland
Training

Control
Groups

Source of
Variance

Sum of Square

df

Mean
Square

Obtained F Value

Pre-test

18.251

18.686

19.188

Between

13.210

2
87

6.500

0.44

 

 

 

 

Within

1273.180

 

14.632

 

Post-test

16.260

16.075

20.615

Between

396.170

2
87

198.000

15.72*

 

 

 

 

Within

1096.170

 

12.598

 

Adjusted
Post-test
Means

16.677

16.096

20,178

Between

290.518

2
86

145.260

330.14*

 

 

 

 

Within

37.776

 

0440

 

Mean Gains

1.991

2.610

1.427

 

 

 

 

 

 

*significant at 0.05 level, NS = Not significant Table F-value: 3.109.

The adjusted post-test means of Wet training group, Dryland training group and Control group were 16.677, 16.096 and 20.178 respectively. The obtained F-ratio was 330.140 and since this was higher than the table F-ratio value of 3.109, the adjusted post-test mean differences among the 3 groups were significant at 0.05 level of confidence (df 2 and 86). While the Wet training group was credited with a mean gain of 1.991, the dryland group recorded a mean gain of 2.610 and the control group’s mean gain was 1.427.

Scheffe’s post-hoc test was therefore resorted-to, to findout the significance of ordered adjusted final mean differences among the groups at Table IX. The ordered adjusted final mean differences for Fat Percentage data of experimental and control groups were tested for significance against Scheffe’s post-hoc F-ratio. The mean difference between Wet training group and Dryland training group was 0.5 81. The obtained F-ratio value of 11.525 was seen to be higher than the table F-ratio of 3.109. Hence the mean difference between Wet training and Dryland training group was significant at 0.05 level of confidence (df = 2 and 86).

TABLE IX

ORDERED ADJUSTED FINAL MEAN DIFFERENCE ON FAT PERCENTAGE OF CONTROL AND EXPERIMENTAL GROUPS IN ANALYSIS OF

COVARIANCE AND SCHEFFE’S POST-HOC TEST

(Scores in Numbers)

Control
Group

Wet
Training

Dryland
Training

Mean Difference

Scheffe’s Post-Hoc Test  F-ratio

20.178

20.178

16.677

 

16.677

 

16.096

16.096

3.501

4.082

0.581

418.441*

568.862*

11.525*

 

Table F-ratio : 3.109, (df = 2 and 86) * Significant at 0.05 level

The Wet training group and Control group showed a mean difference of 3.501 between them. Since the obtained F-ratio value of 418.441 was higher than the table F-ratio of 3.109, this mean difference was also significant at 0.05 level of confidence (df= 2 and 86). The mean difference between Dryland training group and Control group was 4.082. It also produced a Scheffe’s post-hoc F-ratio of 568.862. Since this value was higher than the Table F-ratio of 3.109, this paired mean difference was also siqnificant at 0.05 level of confidence with degrees of freedom 2 and 86. Similarly, the mean difference between Dryland group and Wet training group showed 0.581 producing a Scheffe’s post-hoc F-ratio of 11.525 showing significance 05 level of confidence with degrees of freedom 2 and 86.

DISCUSSION ON HYPOTHESIS

In the present study, the first hypothesis was stated as “ there would be significant effects due to the twelve weeks of Tethered swimming and Dryland training on the physiological parameters of the resident university males. The findings of the study showed that there were statistically significant effects, due to the Tethered swimming training and Dryland training on all the three physiological parameters of the study. Hence the first hypothesis was accepted in toto.

The second hypothesis was stated as “the tethered swimming group is likely to benefit better than the dryland group with regard to cardio-respiratory parameter”. The findings of the study statistically confirmed the superiority of wet training group over dryland training group in the cardiorespiratory parameter of V02 max. hence the second hypothesis was also fully accepted.

The third hypothesis stated was that “ when compared to the sedentary counterparts, both the training groups would exhibit overall significant response to training”. The results of the study was in confirmation with the overall benefit of training over non-training. Hence the third hypothesis was also proved right.


SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Summary : Training studies have frequented in physical education, but mainly on elite athletes. The ordinary student has always wanted to be part of the universal process and the present study has made the most of this opportunity. The life style of the core-youth has always bothered the governments and university authorities. Hence an awareness drive has always been called for which could be accomplished by a study of this sort. The student involvement in such studies ensures first hand effects on the outlook of the campus community.

Findings & Conclusions: The present study has statistically revealed the superior benefits that a trained group will enjoy over its sedentary counterpart. It has also proved beyond doubt that a swimmer will possess a healthier heart and a spacious lungs.

Recommendations:

On the basis of the findings of the study, it is recommended that submaximal training of 12 weeks duration be resorted to for inculcating Health related Physical Fitness capability and thereby to lead a healthier life.

It is also recommended that wet training in swimming pool be adopted for better results in cardiorespiratory endurance.

Sedentary life style invites unwanted diseases and discomfort to ones life. Hence activity-oriented life style on the campus is recommended to prevent unnecessary ailments.

Apart from freedom from diseases, physical exercise ensures desirable traits like Personality, Reaction to situations, Nutritional status, Mental attitude, Craving for achievement, Posture and Structure. Hence scientifically designed training programmes are recommended for the residential campus.

Finally it is recommended that similar studies could be entertained with girls as subjects and with other physiological parameters.

!! JAIHIND !!


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Vol: 1 Issue: 2010