The NAPESS Journal of Physical Education & Sports Science, Under the aegis of NAPESS
ISSN 2229 – 7049 NAPESS – Journal Of Physical Education And Sports Science (Print)
ISSN 2229 – 7316 NAPESS – Journal Of Physical Education And Sports Science (Online)
12010 Vol: 1 Issue: 2010

DESIGN OF A PRECISION TRACK MEASUREMENT SYSTEM

Author: Dr. P. Ravi Kumar*, Prof. C.S.P. Rao**, A.N.M. Krishna Kumar*** —  Co-Author: * Head, Department of Physical Education, ** Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering *** M.Tech. Student, Mechanical Engineering National Institution of Technology, Warangal, A.P., India —  Date: 2010-01-01

Abstract: Track and field events are the most popular physical contest in the world. In laymans term mere physical contest itself means track and field contest. The peculiarity of the track and field competition is that it can be performed at any level at any convenient place. Any normal ground can be marked for track and field events. The rules in conducting the competition can also be manipulated according to the convenience without much discrepancies.

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Track and field events are the most popular physical contest in the world. In layman’s term mere physical contest itself means track and field contest. The peculiarity of the track and field competition is that it can be performed at any level at any convenient place. Any normal ground can be marked for track and field events. The rules in conducting the competition can also be manipulated according to the convenience without much discrepancies.

It can be said that there are no schools, colleges other educational institutions without facilities for athletic competitions. Therefore, the organizers, physical education teachers and coaches are inclined to mark the athletic competition arena sometimes without observing the national or international rules for track & field marking. But the basic rules for standard or non-standard track marking is one and the same as that for standard track marking. Physical Education Teachers and physical Education Trainees should be aware of the necessity for marking the track according to the accepted norms. They also should know the rules to be observed while marking the track.

TRACK MARKING & MARKING POINTS TO REMEMBER

The length of a standard track for running competition is 400 mts. This includes two straights and two curves. The width of the track shouldn’t be less than 9.76 mts. (i.e 8 lanes with at least 1.22 mts. Width each). Unless it is a grass track, the inner lines of the track should have raised borders or kerbs (curbs). Kerbs can be made of concrete or any such other material. The approximate height minimum width of kerbs should be 5 cms. If there is no kerb in the inner lane, lines with 5 cms width should be marked. Flags should be fixed on these lines at a distance of every 5 meters.


MARKING STAGGERS

Staggers are created only because of curves. Staggers distances change only when there is change in lane width and when the kerb is absent. The starting line is the first lane should be extended to the other lanes (finish lines) and from this line the calculated stagger distance in each lane should be marked properly. There is no stagger in the first lane. Stagger starts from the second lane onwards. The stagger distance in each lane should be measured by leaving 0.20 mts from the outer edge of inner line of each lane. Stagger distance should be measured by laying tape outside the intermittent nails (1 metre distance between the nails) which are pegged leaving 0.20 mts from inner edge of each lane. It is better to take separate measurements for measuring stagger distance in each lane. Stagger distance should be measured by stretching out the steel tape properly. To mark stagger distance after measurements, it is necessary to draw a scratch line across the track by stretching out a wire from the middle point of the curve. After that 5 cms lines are to be marked with tape.

AIM

On an Athletic Track the marking of staggers is a time consuming activity. No accurate method for manual marking of stagger is available. The aim of this paper is to suggest simplified and accurate method for manual marking of stagger and relay change over zones.
Staggers are required to be marked on imaginary lines known as Running Distance curve (RDC). Literature suggests use of large number of nails to be put on RDC so that the stretched tape follows RDC. This method is time consuming and inaccurate due to tape following a straight line between two nails. The improved method uses computer programme for converting curved staggers on RDC to chords on actual curved lines for straight marking by stretching the tape without use of any nails.

COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN (CAD)

Today’s CAD Technology can provide the engineer/designer the necessary help in the following:

Computer Aided Design (CAD) is faster and more accurate than conventional methods. The various construction facilities available in CAD would make the job of developing the model and associated drafting a very easy task. In contrast with the traditional drawing methods, under CAD it is possible to manipulate various dimensions, attributes and distances of the drawing elements. This quality makes CAD useful for design work. Under CAD you will never have to repeat the design or drawing of any components. Once a component has been made, it can be copied in all further works within seconds, including any geometric transformation needed. You can accurately calculate the various geometric properties including dimensions of various components interactively in CAD, without actually making their models and profiles. Modification of a model is very easy and would make the designer’s task of improving a given product simple to take care of any future requirements. Use of standard components (part libraries) makes for a very fast model development work. Also a large number of components and sub-assembles may be stored in part libraries to be reproduced and used later. Several professional CAD packages provide 3D (3 dimensional) visualization capabilities so that the designers can see the products being designed from several different orientation. This eliminates the need of making models of product for realization and explaining the concepts to the team. Not only this, several designers can work simultaneously on the same product and can gradually build the product in a modular fashion. This certainly provides the answer to the need of today’s industry and the one emerging on the horizon.
The method has been tested at J.N.Stadium, Warangal, NIT Stadium, Hanamkonda. and L.B.Stadium,Hyderabad and found to be very accurate and time saving.

METHODOLOGY

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

Computer Aided Design (CAD) is faster and more accurate than conventional methods. The various construction facilities available in CAD would make the job of developing the model and associated drafting a very easy task.

To suggest simplified and accurate method for manual marking of stagger and relay change over zones. The improved method uses Computer Aided Design (CAD) Programme for converting curved staggers on RDC to chords on actual curved lines for straight marking by stretching the tape without use of any nails.

As per the Table-1 with the applications of the CAD could find out the Accurate Angle, Straight length from the (30 & 20 cms), Straight length from Reference, In between Straight Length, Distance covered in the 400 m track for 80 m straight in full staggers.

As per the Table-2 with the applications of the CAD could find out the Accurate Angle, Straight length from the (30 & 20 cms), Straight length from Reference, In between Straight Length, Distance covered in the 400 m track for 80 m straight in Half staggers.


Table-1. 80 METERS FULL STAGGERS

 Stagger

I

II

III

IV

V

VI

VII

VIII

 CDR

37.88

39.1

40.32

41.54

42.96

43.98

45.2

46.42

 RDR

38.18

39.3

40.52

41.74

42.96

44.18

45.4

46.62

 

0

7.04

14.71

22.38

30.05

37.71

45.38

53.05

 Angles

0

10.26

20.79
(10.53)

30.70
(9.91)

40.06
(7.36)

48.88
(8.82)

57.24
(8.36)

65.17
(7.93)

 In between Straight  
 Length

0

7.02

7.43

7.21

7.01

6.79

6.61

6.44

 Straight length from
 (30 & 20 Cms)

0

7.02

14.62

22.09

29.42

36.55

43.49

50.21

 Straight length from  
 Reference

0

7.01

14.38

21.43

28.14

34.5

40.52

46.22

 Distance Covered

400m

407.03

414.70

422.37

430.03

437.71

445.37

453.04

 

Table 2. 80 METERS HALF STAGGERS

Stagger

I

II

III

IV

V

VI

VII

VIII

 CDR

37.88

39.1

40.32

41.54

42.76

43.98

45.2

46.42

 RDR

38.18

39.3

40.52

41.77

42.96

44.18

45.4

46.62

 

0

3.52

7.36

11.19

15.03

18.86

22.69

26.53

 Angles

0

5.13

10.40
(5.57)

15.35
 (4.95)

20.04
(4.69)

24.45
(4.45)

28.63
(4.18)

32.60
(3.97)

 In between Straight
 Length

0

3.51

3.72

3.60

3.51

3.4

3.31

3.23

 Straight length from
 (30 & 20 cms)

0

3.51

7.35

11.15

14.95

18.71

22.45

26.17

 Straight length from  
 Reference

0

3.63

7.49

11.24

14.87

18.39

21.81

25.13

 Distance Covered

200

203.51

207.35

211.18

215.02

218.85

222.69

226.52

 


CONCLUSION

Improved method is simple, less time consuming, accurate and recommended to be adopted for teaching and professional use.

REFERENCES

1. Rogers D. F. and J. A. Adams, “Mathematical Elements for Computer Graphics”, McGrawhill, New York, 1976.

2. Groover M. P. and E.W. Zimmers, “CAD/CAM: Computer Aided Design and Monitoring”, Prentice Hall, Eglewood Clitts, New Jersey, 1984.

3. Mortenson M. E., “Geometric Modeling”, John Wiley, New York, 1985.

4. Ibrahim Zeid, “CAD/CAM, Theory and Practice”, Tata McGraw Hill Edition, 1998.

5. Jacob, K. K., “Book of Rules of Games and Sports”, YMCA Publishing House, New Delhi, 2006.

6. Anand R. L., “Playing Field Manual”, NIS Publication, Thomson Press (India) Limited, Haryana, India, 1986.


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