The NAPESS Journal of Physical Education & Sports Science, Under the aegis of NAPESS
ISSN 2229 – 7049 NAPESS – Journal Of Physical Education And Sports Science (Print)
ISSN 2229 – 7316 NAPESS – Journal Of Physical Education And Sports Science (Online)
12011 Vol: 1 Issue: 2010

NUTRIENT INTAKE AND DIETARY PATTERN OF HOCKEY PLAYERS OF HEMCHANDRACHARYA NORTH GUJARAT UNIVERSITY PATAN

Author: Dr. Nagin H. Gamit, Shri&Smt.P.k.kotawala Arts college, Patan. (N.Guj), University, Patan. (India.) Pin — 384265 —  Date: 2011-01-01

Abstract: The present study was taken up with two groups i.e. non-sports university/college and university sports Department, Hockey players. A total of 120 male Hockey players. age groups between 18-22 years and 23-28 years were selected from the colleges of the university , 60 players from each city of .Patan, Banashkatha,Sabarkatha and Mahesana District by using stratified random sampling techniques. Nutrient intake was determined by 24 hours dietary recall method. The average nutrients intake was calculated. Maximum players in non-sports university/college followed four meals pattern, whereas in university sports Department maximum players followed five meals pattern. Mean nutrient intake of non-sports university/college Hockey Players shows that caloric, protein and iron intake were less than recommended dietary allowances. However fat, calcium, vitamin A, Vitamin C, thiamine and riboflavin. The mean nutrients intake of university sports Department players were in accordance with recommended dietary allowances.

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" NUTRIENT INTAKE AND DIETARY PATTERN OF HOCKEY PLAYERS OF HEMCHANDRACHARYA NORTH GUJARAT UNIVERSITY PATAN"

Dr. Nagin H. Gamit

Shri&Smt.P.k.kotawala Arts college, Patan. (N.Guj)

University, Patan. (India.) Pin — 384265

ABSTRACT

The present study was taken up with two groups i.e. non-sports university/college and university sports Department, Hockey players. A total of 120 male Hockey players. age groups between 18-22 years and 23-28 years were selected from the colleges of the university , 60 players from each city of .Patan, Banashkatha,Sabarkatha and Mahesana District by using stratified random sampling techniques. Nutrient intake was determined by 24 hours dietary recall method. The average nutrients intake was calculated. Maximum players in non-sports university/college followed four meals pattern, whereas in university sports Department maximum players followed five meals pattern. Mean nutrient intake of non-sports university/college Hockey Players shows that caloric, protein and iron intake were less than recommended dietary allowances. However fat, calcium, vitamin A, Vitamin C, thiamine and riboflavin. The mean nutrients intake of university sports Department players were in accordance with recommended dietary allowances.

INTRODUCTION

Hockey is probably the world's most popular sports, played in every nation at varying level of competence. Nutrition playes a vital role in the health of players . The food intake of Hockey players was based on cereals, meat, fish , eggs, milk and dairy products, biscuits and confectionery, oil, butter and margarine which provided 78 percent of total energy, 85 percent of proteins, 64 percent of carbohydrates, 90 percent of lipids, and 47 percent of fiber. The sufficient iron, 48 percent of individuals showed iron deficiency without anemia (Reilly 1996). A healthy diet improves the general level of health and can help to recover more quickly from injuries. Along with a programmer of fitness training, the diet can help to develop stamina and improve players' performance. The nutritional needs of Hockey players are usually greater than the normal male, It was suggested that they should take approximately 70 Kcal/kg energy of the ideal body weight, protein up 60 g/day, fat 25g/day is good for sportsmen (Murphy et.al.2006). Due to exclusive physical stress and vitality need of micronutrients such as vitamins and minerals is exceeded. For good stamina and vigor's needs of B complex, vitamin A, vitamin C and vitamin E is also increased, like wise calcium, phosphorous, iron and magnesium minerals sources should be added into the daily diet (Sheriffs et.al.2005). Ellen et al.(2000) suggested that sportsmen must eat the "perfect ratio" consists of 40 percent carbohydrates, 30 percent protein and 30 percent fat. Each meal and snack should provide 12-15 percent total calories from protein at least 55-60 percent from carbohydrate and up to 25-30 percent to control their hormonal system and thus reach their maximum performance and ideal body weight, youth participating in sports should eat a variety of food from breads and cereals, fruits, vegetables, meat and meat substitutes and dairy food. Foods rich in simple sugar and fatty acids like tobacco, caffeine, sugar and refined spicy food should be avoided (Srilakshmi 2000). The fluid and nutrient needs during a contest / game depends on the intensity duration, ambient temperature and humidity. The sports person cannot depend on thirst to meet fluid needs : the sports person should drink 400 to 500 ml water two hours before the competition. They should drink 100 to 150 ml every 20 minutes depending on the event and climate and should continue to drink fluids after the event until the lost weight is restored. Plain cold water if normally the fluid of choice to ensure dehydration except for endurance competitions or training rounds (susan et.al.2006). In sports, the macronutrients and carbohydrate plays an important role as fuel to the body during sports activities. When the level of carbohydrate is reduced intensity and length of activity decreases and fatigue rapidly increases. Any of this may be detrimental to optimal sports performance (Hawley et.al.2006) keeping this view in mind the present study was taken up with following objective to study the dietary pattern and nutrient intake of Hockey players.

METHODS :

Selection of sample: three stages of sampling was adopted for the present study

stage I : selection of city stage II : selection of area. Stage III : selection respondents.

Selection of City : The colleagues of Patan, Banashkatha, Sabarkatha and Mahesana District of North Gujarat were selected for the investigation because its accessibility and regular visits that could make this study easy and approachable The selections of these cities were made purposively because of availability of Hockey players.

Selection of Area : A university and a college was selected for procuring desired data, they are : Hemchandracharya North Gujarat University, Patan and University Sports Department, Patan.

Selection Of Respondents : Total 120 male Hockey players were selected between the ages of 18 to 28 years. Stratified random sampling techniques were used for the selection of respondents. 60 respondents from Patan, Banashkatha,Sabarkatha and Mahesana District 60 respondents form Mahesana cities were selected 30 respondents of each age group i.e.18-22 and 23-28 years randomly selected respectively. They were participating in Hockey competitive matches at college / university levels.

Collection of Data : A checklist type of questionnaire was selected, as it is reliable method to elicit information and dietary pattern of Hockey players . The questionnaire helped to elicit the following information regarding food habits and nutrient intake etc.

Assessement of Nutrient Intake : 24 hours dietary recalls method was adopted and nutrients intake per day was calculated ( Swaminathan,2004). Calculation of nutrients intake was done with the help of the nutritive value of Indian foods and compare with RDA given by ICMR (Gopalan et at.2004).

Statistical Analysis : The collected data were analyzed with the help of following tests as per the procedure of Fisher and Yates presented by Arrora et.al (2007)

FINDINGS : TABEL-1

DIETARY PATTERNS OF THE HOCKEY PLAYERS

DIETARY PATTERN

NON-SPORTS UNIVERSITY/

COLLEGE

UNIVERSITY SPORTS DEPARTMENT

AVERAGE

n=60

%

n=60

%

n=120

%

4 meal pattern *

39

65.00

19

31.66

58

48.33

5 meal pattern**

21

35.00

41

68.33

62

51.66

Total

60

100

60

100

120

100

* = Breakfast + Lunch +Evening tea + Dinner

* *= Breakfast + Lunch +Evening tea + Dinner +Any other

TABLE II

AVERGE NUTRIENT INTAKE OF HOCKEY PLAYERS

NUTEIENTS

RDA

UNIVERSITY SPORTS DEPARTMENT

NON SPORTS COLLEGE

Energy (keal)

3800

3980.5

3425.92

Protein (G)

60

70.9

56.0

Fat (G)

20

25

25

Iron (mg)

28

23.9

26

Calcium (mg)

400

540.5

510.7

Vitamin A (micro g)

2400

2450

2510

Vitamin C(mg)

40

60.78

45.7

Vitamin B1(mg)

1.6

2.3

1.8

Vitamin B2 (mg)

1.9

3.45

2.5

DISCUSSIONS OF THE FINDINGS :

DIETARY PATTERNS OF THE HOCKEY PLAYERS

Table-I shows that majority of Hockey players, 51.66 percent followed five meals pattern.whereas 48.33 percent Hockey players were following four meals patterns. Among non- sports university / college Hockey players 65 percent were taking four meals pattern and 35 percent Hockey players were taking five meals pattern. Similar results were observed by Serrotosa (2001) also found out that majority of the Hockey players took four meals per day. However, among university sports Department maximum numbers of Hockey players (68.33 percent) were taking five meals pattern. , rests 31.66 percent of Hockey players from university sports Department were taking four meals pattern. Most of the Hockey players form university sports Department got economical supports from the college and followed the diet recommended by the dietician there fore, they used to follow five meals pattern per day whereas, the Hockey players form non-sports university/college does not have any economical support none of the college and were not aware of the importance of regular meal pattern so they generally followed four meals pattern.

AVERAGE DAILY ENERGY AND NUTRIENT INTAKE OF THE HOCKEY PLAYERS.

Table-II shows the daily nutrient intake of Hockey players from non-sports university/college and university sports Department with reference to calorie, protein,fat,iron, calcium,vitamin C, vitamin A,thiamine,riboflavin and vitaminn B12 were comparing with RDA (Gopalan,C.2004) Among non-sports university/college players the mean daily nutrient intake of caloric, protein, iron was less than RDA whereas, the mean of fat, calcium, vitamin C, thiamine, riboflavin and vitamin B12 was more than RDA. Mean nutrient intake of university sports Department Hockey players iron was less than RDA. whereas, the Mean intakes of calories, protein fat, calcium,vitamin A, vitamin C, thiamine, riboflavin, and vitamin B12 were more than RDA. The results reveal that the nutritional status of university sports Department Hockey players was batter than non-sports university/college Hockey players. This may be due to the intake of planned diet advised by dietician along with nutritional and economical support provided by the college to university sports Department Hockey players, which may enhance their vital abilities to perfrom better. On applying 't'-test on the difference between nutrient intakes of Hockey players from both groups a significant difference was found. Jillian K.et.al.(2006) suggested adolescents participating in sports have better eating habits and nutrient intake than that of their non-sport adolescent players. However, they are still in need of nutrient interventions particularly in calcium intake.

CONCLUSION :

Among players of non-sports university/college, majority of the players (65 percent) were taking four meals per day however, among university sports Department maximum numbers of players (68.33 percent) were taking five meals per day. Daily consumption of cereals, pulses, fats and oils, sugar and juggory was in accordance with the RDA where as the daily consumption of green leafy vegetables, fruits, meat and fish were less than the RDA in both the groups. In non-sports university/college players the mean nutrient intake of calories, protein and iron was less than recommended dietary allowances (RDA) whereas, mean intakes of fat. calcium, vitamin C, vitamin A, thiamine, riboflavin and vitamin B12 were more than the RDA. while mean nutrient intake of university sports Department players was in accordance with RDA except iron intake, which was less than the RDA, on applying t-test there was a significant difference found between both the groups. 50 percent and 53.33 percent of players were taking plain water in both the groups for compensating the loss through perspiration. It is concluded that mean nutrient intake of non-sports university/college Hockey players was less then recommended dietary allowance (RDA) but in university sports Department Hockey was in accordance with RDA.

REFERENCES:

Arrora.s, Arrora.P , And Arrora.P.N.1st Edition. Comprehensive statistical methods. S.chand publications : 7.1-7.4,17.1-17.71,18.1-18.28.Ellen, Krause "Nutrition and Diet therapy' Agra publication 2000.742-746 Murph,Sue,Jeanesy and Vonne " nutritional knowledge and dietary intakes of young professional Hockey players." Nutrition and food science 2006 May : 36:343- 348.

Really " Science and Hockey" Essential and FN spun London 1996.P-164-171.

Shirreffs. M.S Hall.M. "Physiological profile in relation to playing position of elite college garlic Hockey" British Journals of Sports medicine 2005 May : 39:264-266.

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Vol: 1 Issue: 2010