The NAPESS Journal of Physical Education & Sports Science, Under the aegis of NAPESS
ISSN 2229 – 7049 NAPESS – Journal Of Physical Education And Sports Science (Print)
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12011 Vol: 1 Issue: 2010

PERIODICAL ASSESSMENT FOR TWO-YEAR OF SYSTEMATIC HOCKEY ACADEMY TRAINING PROGRAM ON AEROBIC CAPACITY

Author: Mrs. V. HYMAVATHI, Research Scholar —  Co-Author: Dr. P. JOHNSON, Assistant Professor —  Date: 2011-01-01

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of an entire season of systematic hockey academy training program for two years on aerobic capacity. For this purpose, a total of twenty three boys from RDT Hockey Academy, Anantapur, Andhra Pradesh, were considered. The age of the selected subjects were ranged between 15 to 18 years. The training regimen lasted for one year was assessed on four times (T1, T2, T3 and T4) for every three months. Two-way repeated ANOVA was computed to establish degree of significant difference between data collected during the academic year 2007—08 and 2008-09. In aerobic capacity periodical evaluation year (F = 20.75, p < 0.001), testing session (F = 5.026, p < 0.003) and interaction (F = 24.53, p < 0.001) found significant. The post hoc test revealed that when testing sessions are compared between two years showed significant differences on T1, T3 and T4. The aerobic capacity showed significant improvement from first year to second year about 4.07%, 5.68% and 3.42% ml/kg/min. Post hoc test also show that during the year (2007 — 08) changes in aerobic capacity noticed between T1-T4, this shows that aerobic capacity increases toward the end of the season by 5.13% ml/kg/min. It also showed that during the year (2008 — 09) changes in aerobic capacity noticed between T1-T3, T1-T4, T2-T3 and T2-T4 were 4.78%, 4.50%, 6.27%, and 6.06% respectively, this also shows that aerobic capacity increases toward the end of the season. The findings of the study reveals that two years of systematic hockey academy training program had a considerable amplification on aerobic capacity.

-*-*-*-

PERIODICAL ASSESSMENT FOR TWO-YEAR OF SYSTEMATIC HOCKEY ACADEMY TRAINING PROGRAM ON AEROBIC CAPACITY

* Mrs. V. HYMAVATHI and **Dr. P. JOHNSON

* Research Scholar & **Assistant Professor,
University College of Physical Education & Sports Sciences,
Acharya Nagarjuna University, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, India.

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of an entire season of systematic hockey academy training program for two years on aerobic capacity. For this purpose, a total of twenty three boys from RDT Hockey Academy, Anantapur, Andhra Pradesh, were considered. The age of the selected subjects were ranged between 15 to 18 years. The training regimen lasted for one year was assessed on four times (T1, T2, T 3 and T4) for every three months. Two-way repeated ANOVA was computed to establish degree of significant difference between data collected during the academic year 2007-08 and 2008-09. In aerobic capacity periodical evaluation year (F = 20.75, p < 0.001), testing session (F = 5.026, p < 0.003) and interaction (F = 24.53, p < 0.001) found significant. The post hoc test revealed that when testing sessions are compared between two years showed significant differences on T1, T3 and T4. The aerobic capacity showed significant improvement from first year to second year about 4.07%, 5.68% and 3.42% ml/kg/min. Post hoc test also show that during the year (2007 - 08) changes in aerobic capacity noticed between T1-T4, this shows that aerobic capacity increases toward the end of the season by 5.13% ml/kg/min. It also showed that during the year (2008 - 09) changes in aerobic capacity noticed between T1-T3, T1 -T4, T2-T3 and T2-T4 were 4.78%, 4.50%, 6.27%, and 6.06% respectively, this also shows that aerobic capacity increases toward the end of the season. The findings of the study reveals that two years of systematic hockey academy training program had a considerable amplification on aerobic capacity.

Key Words : VO2 max, aerobic capacity, 1.5mile run, two-way repeated measure ANOVA.

Introduction

Field hockey is a sport with a long history that has undergone quite rapid and radical changes. The advent of the synthetic playing surface has changed the technical, tactical and physiological requirements of the game at all levels, but in particular at the elite level. To achieve the best possible performance, the training has to be formulated according to the principles of periodization (Bompa, 1999). The training induced changes observed in various parameters can be attributed to appropriate load dynamics.

Physique and body composition have an important role for playing field hockey (Montgomery, 2006; Quinney et al., 2008; Tarter et al., 2009). In field hockey lots of movements and skills are involved so a high level of physical demand is required for match play (Montgomery, 2006; Quinney et al., 2008; Tarter et al., 2009). The game of field hockey involves walking, jogging, sprinting in varied directions with and without ball. As the players have to cover a big area in the ground during attack and defence therefore, the game demands for aerobic as well as anaerobic fitness (Bloomfield et al., 2007; Elferink-Gemser et al., 2006; Hinrichs et al., 2010). A high number of accelerations and decelerations, associated with the large number of changes in direction of play create an additional load to the muscles involved as in field hockey, those players better suited to cope with the demands of the game reach the elite level (Bloomfield et al., 2007; Elferink-Gemser et al., 2006). The maintenance of fitness during a season is a key target for every team (Koutedakis, 1995) but this is a complex process reflecting the diverse physical demands of the game.

Performance of athletes depends on their technical, physiological and psychological abilities. Different sports require various levels of aerobic, anaerobic, speed, power, agility, and strength capacities. Elite athletes and athletes who aim to become elite usually train year-round with carefully designed training programs. Competition naturally provides the best test for athletes. However, it is difficult to isolate various components of performance during competitions. In addition, the modification of training program may be required prior to the competitions according to athletes' current physical status in order to reach the best performance in the upcoming competition. Furthermore, the long-term high-intensity training may result in insufficient recovery, which may lead to chronic fatigue, staleness of performance, and even overtraining. Therefore, the close monitoring of physical capacities during the entire training period is essential for athletes for the following reasons (Lin and Chang, 2009):

1. To study the effect of a training program.

2. To motivate the athletes to train more.

3. To give an athlete objective feedback.

4. To make an athlete more aware of the aims of the training.

5. To evaluate whether an athlete is ready to compete.

6. To determine the performance level of an athletes during a rehabilitation period.

7. To plan short-and long-term training programs.

8. To identify the weakness of an athlete.

9. To determine if the recovery is sufficient.

To obtain useful information from a test, it is essential that the test is relevant and resembles the conditions of the sport.

This study was focused on the field hockey players as the game is popular and played through out the world. The anthropometric, physiological and biochemical variables have important role for the evaluation of training of the athletes. Studies on these parameters of field hockey players particularly in the RDT Hockey Academy, Anantapur, Andhra Pradesh age group are lacking in India. In view of the above, a study was undertaken to investigate the effect of two entire season of systematic hockey academy training program on aerobic capacity of boys.


Methods

Subjects and training

The subjects employed in the present study were twenty three male Hockey players from the RDT Hockey Academy, Anantapur, Andhra Pradesh (Mean ± SD: Age 16.5 ± 1.5 years, Height 168.7 ± 7.9 cm, Body Mass 65.9 ± 6.1 kg) preparing for the 2008 - 09 district and state Championship. All the players had been part of the team for a minimum of 2 years. In this study players provided written, informed consent to participate.

After taking the base line data (BD, zero level) the players went through a training programme. The training sessions were divided into two phases Preparatory Phase and Competitive Phase. In Preparatory general and specific phases of training was carried out with duration of 6 months and competitive phase for 3 months. The volume and intensities of the training components also varies in each phase of training. In the preparatory phase, the volume and intensity of training increased gradually. On the other hand, in the competitive phase the training volume and intensity was changed according to the competition schedule. At the same time highly specified training related to field hockey and practice match play was followed in the competitive phase. The players generally completed an average of 2 hours of training in morning sessions, which was mostly performed to improve the physical fitness of the players. On the other hand, in the evening sessions 2 hours of technical and tactical training, which Included dribbling, tackle, set up movements, penalty corner, penalty shoot out and match practice. The training sessions were followed 5 days/week, according to the requirement of the game and competitive demand. The training schedule, type of training, volume and intensity is shown in table 1.

All subjects were familiar with all the testing that took place, which included both field and laboratory assessments. The inclusion criteria for the current study dictated that all subjects must have completed the selected tests on all testing sessions. From the above sample, all subjects met these criteria, and thus, only these subjects were used for subsequent analysis.


Testing procedure

Testing took place at four points during the periodized training for two year; at the beginnings of general preparation (T1), specific preparation (T2), competition (T3) phases of training and peak (T4). The selected variables speed, power, abdominal strength endurance, arm strength endurance and cardio respiratory endurance was assessed on all testing sessions a schematic figure of the periodized year can be found in figure 1.

Figure 1 : A schematic representation of the periodized training year of the RDT Hockey Academy, Anantapur, Andhra Pradesh male hockey team. The different training phases, as well as the testing points (T1-T4) are presented.

June

July

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

Jan

Feb

General Preparation

Specific Preparation

Competition

Peak

T1

T2

T3

T4

The study commenced after the end of the previous transition season and at the beginning of the general preparation phase of training. The training year was divided into four mesocycles (general preparation, June to August; specific preparation, September to November; competition, December & January) and Peak (February). Training for general preparation followed a low intensity, high volume' build up (60-70% maximum heart rate and 8-12 hours training over a weekend). The training progressed to 'high intensity, low volume' (85% maximum heart rate and 6 hours over a weekend) at competition. The training focus also changed from developing the relevant components of fitness to maintenance and game preparation. The training weekends were designed to increase the player's training loads in the general preparation phase while increasing the intensity and sport-specific training during the latter specific preparation and competition stages. A similar approach was followed for the games and tournaments, where more difficult tournaments were entered later in the year. Two reduced-training periods were used, one at the end of the general preparatory phase and the other at the end of the specific preparation phase. Finally, it is important to note that the periodized training year presented above relates to the physical training completed for the state squad only. The players all trained in RDT Hockey Academy, Anantapur, Andhra Pradesh it is possible to quantify exact training loads. The tests conducted on all testing session were in the order. This order was followed to minimize the effects of previous tests on subsequent test performance, as suggested by the American College of Sports Medicine (1995). The same order was followed for all testing sessions. The equipment was calibrated according to manufacturers' standardized procedures.

All subjects were familiarized with the procedures prior to testing. Sport-specific testing had been used frequently as part of the training programme, while for the laboratory-based tests the subjects undertook specific familiarization trials prior to the testing sessions. The subjects had been instructed to refrain from strenuous exercise for forty-eight hours prior to testing and to avoid food and caffeine intake for two hours preceding the assessments. All subjects completed testing at the same time of day to avoid any circadian rhythm effects (Atkinson & Reilly, 1996).

Tests

Aerobic capacity (VO2 max) was estimated from 2400 meters run. The following equation can be used to estimate VO2max.

VO2max (ml/kg/min) = 3.5 + 483 / (time in minutes)

Statistical analyses

Descriptive statistics were calculated for all variables. A two way repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was utilized to determine significant differences for each variable between the testing sessions. Scheffé S post-hoc test was used to locate differences between testing sessions. Significance level was set at P ≤ 0.05. All statistical analyses were conducted using SPSS 11.5 version.

Results

Descriptive (mean ± SD) of the results can be found in table 2. Two-way repeated measures of analysis of variance (ANOVA) on aerobic capacity indicated significant differences between periodical evaluation years (F = 5.14, p < 0.05), testing sessions (F = 12.23, p < 0.05) and interaction (F = 4.02, p < 0.05). Since interaction is significant simple effect was applied. RDT Hockey Academy boys showed significant changes in aerobic capacity throughout the season and periodical evaluation years. The simple effect was calculated and found Testing sessions (T1,T3, T4) irrespective of periodical evaluation year showed significant difference and irrespective of testing sessions and periodical evaluation year 2008 - 09. The Scheffé S post-hoc test was applied for aerobic capacity.

Table 2: Descriptive and F value of Aerobic capacity

Testing

Session

Periodical evaluation years (ml/kg/min)

F Value

Periodical evaluation years

Testing session

Interaction


2007 - 08

2008 - 09

T1

53.73±3.69

56.01±4.25

5.14*

12.23*

4.02*

T2

55.45±3.39

55.09±3.46

T3

55.44±3.29

58.78±3.26

T4

56.64±3.50

58.65±3.40

*Significant at 0.05 level of confidence

The table value required for significance at 0.05 level of confidence with df 1 and 44 is 4.084; df 3 and 132 is 2.6755.

From Table 3, Post-hoc analysis revealed that when testing sessions are compared between two years showed significant differences on T1, T3 and T4. The aerobic capacity showed significant improvement from first year to second year about 4.07%, 5.68% and 3.42% ml/kg/min.

Table 3: Scheffé S post-hoc test on different phases between two periodized years

Testing session

2007-08

2008-09

MD

CI

%

T1

53.732

56.019

2.287*

1.537

4.07

T2

55.455

55.095

0.36

1.537

-0.65

T3

55.447

58.780

3.334*

1.537

5.68

T4

56.644

58.655

2.011*

1.537

3.42

*Significant at 0.05 level of confidence

From table 4, Post-hoc analysis revealed that differences exist within a year (2007 - 08) on aerobic capacity. The changes in aerobic capacity noticed between T1-T4, this shows that aerobic capacity increases toward the end of the season by 5.13% ml/kg/min.

Table 4: Post hoc test among different phases of training during the year 2007 - 2008

P1

P2

C1

C2

MD

CI

53.732

55.4552

1.7232

2.201

53.732

55.4465

1.7145

2.201

53.732

56.6438

2.9118*

2.201

55.4552

55.4465

0.0087

2.201

55.4552

56.6438

1.1886

2.201

55.4465

56.6438

1.1973

2.201

*Significant at 0.05 level of confidence

The graphical representation of the data on different phases of training during the year 2007-2008 is presented in figure 2.


From table 5, Post-hoc analysis revealed that differences exist within a year (2008 - 09) on aerobic capacity. The changes in aerobic capacity noticed between T1-T3, T1-T4, T2-T3 and T2-T4 were 4.78%, 4.50%, 6.27%, and 6.06% respectively, this also shows that aerobic capacity increases toward the end of the season.

Table 5: Post hoc test among different phases of training during the year 2008 - 2009

T1

T2

T3

T4

MD

CI

56.0189

55.0952

0.9237

2.201

56.0189

58.7801

2.7612*

2.201

56.0189

58.6546

2.6357*

2.201

55.0952

58.7801

3.6849*

2.201

55.0952

58.6546

3.5594*

2.201

58.7801

58.6546

0.1255

2.201

*Significant at 0.05 level of confidence

The graphical representation of the data on different phases of training during the year 2008-2009 is presented in figure 3.


img src="images/12011-13-3.png" />

Discussion on Findings

Aerobic capacity certainly plays an important role in modern field hockey and has a major influence on technical performance and tactical choices. The present study showed an increasing trend with a significant change in maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) in the RDT Hockey Academy male hockey players in preparatory phase and competitive phase when compared to base line data. It might be due to the long duration of the training in male players (Wilmore & Costill, 2005). Age may be a limiting factor too (Wilmore & Costill, 2005). Therefore, it can be stated that aerobic training of endurance and intermittent nature can improve the maximal aerobic capacity of the hockey players. Ideally, endurance training for hockey players should be carried out using the ball, because the player motivation is also normally considered to be higher when the ball is used. The players might then additionally develop technical and tactical skills similar to situations experienced during the game.

Interestingly, the changes in aerobic capacity occurred mid-season while there was no any noticeable decline towards the end of the two competitive seasons. The observation of improved mid-season physiological performances is probably due to a number of interrelated factors. The training and competition at this stage contributed to the improvement of aerobic capacity. In addition, the accumulative effect of minor injuries, reduced opportunities for aerobic conditioning training, and general fatigue could all be factors reducing aerobic capacity at that test occasion (Helgerud et al., 2001; Reilly et al., 2000).

However, athletes with adequately developed aerobic capacities generally showed no change in VO2max after training programs or competitive seasons. Research in athletes in 'technical' sports in which performance is principally determined by skill, have suggested either reduced or unchanged aerobic fitness following training and competition seasons. Elite junior female and male speed skaters also showed similar VO2max levels before, during, and after a competitive season (van Ingen Schenau, et al., 1992). This is consistent with the observation of a high genetic contribution to VO2 max performance, thus probably restricting the potential for improvement (Bouchard et al., 1992; Edwards et al., 2003), especially in elite athletes with already well-developed exercise capacities. Nevertheless, a previous study demonstrated significant improvements in the VO2 max test performances of elite youth players as a consequence of specific aerobic training (Helgerud et al., 2001) but it is likely that those gains are probably, in part, attributable to maturation. Therefore, it is possible that properly designed training program can still improve aerobic capacity.

Conclusions

1) Aerobic capacity remains unstable across periodized years for RDT Hockey Academy male hockey players.

2) These players tended to attain optimal performances at the mid-season interval over the 2 seasons.

References

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4. H. A. Quinney, R. Dewart, A. Game, G. Snydmiller, D. Warburton, G. Bell. (2008). A 26 year physiological description of a National Hockey League team. Applied Physiology Nutrition Metabolism. 33: 753-760.

5. C. Tarter, L. Kirisci, R. E. Tarter, S. Weatherbee, V. Jamnik, E. J. McGuire, N. Gledhill. (2009). Use of aggregate fitness indicators to predict transition into the National Hockey League.H HJournal of Strength Conditioning ResHearch. 2009, 23: 1828-1832.

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8. J. Bloomfield, R. Polman, P. O'Donoghue, L. McNaughton. Effective speed and agility conditioning methodology for random intermittent dynamic type sports. Journal of Strength Conditioning Research. 2007, 21: 1093-10100.

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