The NAPESS Journal of Physical Education & Sports Science, Under the aegis of NAPESS
ISSN 2229 – 7049 NAPESS – Journal Of Physical Education And Sports Science (Print)
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12011 Vol: 1 Issue: 2010

EFFECT OF MUSIC ON MALE COLLEGE PHYSICAL EDUCATION STUDENTS DURING A MAXIMAL TREADMILL TEST

Author: Kumar Sanjeev, Lakshmibai National University of Physical Education, India —  Date: 2011-01-01

Abstract: Music has been widely recommended as a technique to enhance the psychophysical state of the participant in sports and exercise. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of listening to music on male college physical education students work output; rate of perceived exertion (RPE), maximum heart rate (MHR), time to exertion (TTE) during a maximal treadmill test was examined. Twenty male physical education students (age 21 3 yrs, height 170 5.1 cm, weight 68 5.5kg) were selected randomly for the study and divided randomly in two groups(group A & group B).Each group had ten participants and all participants ran to volitional exhaustion on two separate occasions. Participants of group A ran one trial (T1) while without listening to music and second trial (T2) ran listen to pre selected music. Though, group B participants ran without music on both the occasions. Dependent t-test was used to determine that there was significant difference found in all parameters at 0.05 level of significance in group A.As the calculated t-value of RPE=4.263, MHR=8.835 & TTE=6.851 in group A was found greater than tabulated t-value (1.833) at 0.05 level of significance. Whereas, calculated t value of RPE=1.398, MHR=0.681 & TTE=0.309 in group B was found lesser than tabulated t-value (1.833) to be insignificant at 0.05 level of significance. Evidence of this study suggests that music produce significant effect on RPE, MHR & TTE for male college physical education students.

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EFFECT OF MUSIC ON MALE COLLEGE PHYSICAL EDUCATION STUDENTS DURING A MAXIMAL TREADMILL TEST

Kumar Sanjeev

Lakshmibai National University of Physical Education, India

Abstract

Music has been widely recommended as a technique to enhance the psychophysical state of the participant in sports and exercise. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of listening to music on male college physical education students work output; rate of perceived exertion (RPE), maximum heart rate (MHR), time to exertion (TTE) during a maximal treadmill test was examined. Twenty male physical education students (age 21 3 yrs, height 170 5.1 cm, weight 68 5.5kg) were selected randomly for the study and divided randomly in two groups(group A & group B).Each group had ten participants and all participants ran to volitional exhaustion on two separate occasions. Participants of group A ran one trial (T1) while without listening to music and second trial (T2) ran listen to pre selected music. Though, group B participants ran without music on both the occasions. Dependent t-test was used to determine that there was significant difference found in all parameters at 0.05 level of significance in group A.As the calculated t-value of RPE=4.263, MHR=8.835 & TTE=6.851 in group A was found greater than tabulated t-value (1.833) at 0.05 level of significance. Whereas, calculated t value of RPE=1.398, MHR=0.681 & TTE=0.309 in group B was found lesser than tabulated t-value (1.833) to be insignificant at 0.05 level of significance. Evidence of this study suggests that music produce significant effect on RPE, MHR & TTE for male college physical education students.

Introduction:

The interplay of exercise & music has been long discussed, crossing the discipline of bio mechanics, neurology and exercise physiology and sports psychology. People "automatically feel the beats" of the music they listen to and instinctively adjust their walking pace and heart rate to the tempo of the music. Listening to the music while exercise has been found in multiple studies to create an increased sense of motivation, distracting the mind while increasing heart rate. (Reynolds & Gretchen, 2010).Motivational music is defined as that which a rouses strong feeling or encourage physical activity and factors such as music tempo, rhythm and intensity which mainly influence physical performance, exercise work output or effort (Anshel & Marisi, 1978: Priest et. al., 2004). In a well designed study, Ellis & Brihouse (1952) noted that respiration rate increase significantly with the one set of Jazz music and tends to return to pre music levels with the cessation of music. Heart rate was only moderately affected by introduction of music. The average heart rate is between 72 - 80 beats per minute while music tempos may range from 70 to 170 beats per minute. A review of studies indicate that heart rate tends to only moderately follow the music ; increasing in response to fast music and decreasing in response to slow music. Heart rate increased by all types of music can be explained due to the fact that music does produce some kind of emotional effect,thus increasing the heart rate (Dainow,1977).

The effect of music on physical performance is well-documented .Rating of perceived Exertion(RPE) has been shown to be lower in physically active & untrained individuals when listening to music compared to non music when performing sub maximal exercise ( Potteiger et. al. , 2000; Boutcher & Trenske, 1990). Music seems to affect RPE at moderate exercise intensities ( eg. 60- 75% of maximum heart rate ), but once intensity reaches 85% of maximum heart rate, RPE is unaffected by music ( Boutcher & Trenske, 1990; Copeland & franks 1999).

Rejeski (1985) provide an explanation of why music affects RPE at lower exercise intensities but not higher intensities. The parallel processing model which suggests that external stimuli, such as music, can distract the person from the painful & exertive physical sensations they are feeling at that moment and instead they focus on the external stimuli such as music. It is important to note that once the fatiguing sensation go beyond the destruction capabilities of the external stimulus, perceptual threshold has been met ( Tenenbuum et. al., 2004). Once the person reaches perceptual threshold, the individual will shift attention from the external stimulus of music to internal sensation of pain, fatigue and exertion. At this point, the focus on the acute stress, result in cessation of exercise. (Tenenbuum et. al., 2004, Yamashita et. al., 2006).

Anshel & Marisi (1978) found that individuals could exercise longer if listening to music they enjoy, suggesting that their nervous system has the capabilities of attending to limited environmental stimuli at any given moment, while at the same time, eliminates other painful stimuli. A study using highly trainrd individuals found that listening to music did alter heart rate among other physiological variables ( Szmedra & Bacharach 1998). Thus, it is possible that the effect of music on physiological variables is dependent on training status. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the effect of listening to music on university male physical education students work output; RPE, Max. heart rate &time to exhaustion during a maximal tread mill test.

Methods:

Twenty university male physical education students from Lakshmibai National University of Physical Education, Gwalior (age 21 3 yrs, height 170 5.1 cm, weight 68 5.5kg) were selected randomly for the study and divided randomly in two groups (Group A & Group B). Each group had 10 participants. All participants ran to Volitional exhaustion on two separate occasions. Participants of Group A ran one trial (T₁) without listen to music & (T₂) ran while listening to preselected motivational music with medium intensity at 95db.Karageorhes et. al., (2006) define motivational music "at that which stimulate or inspire physical activity". Though Group B participants ran without music on both the occasions. The 15-point rating of perceived exertion (RPE) scale was used during each trial. The RPE scale was used during each trial. The RPE scale is a reliable indicator of the participants physical discomfort, has sound psycho metric properties and has a strong co-relation with several other physiological measures of exertion (Borg, 1982). A free motion treadmill was used for testing at LNUPE Fitness Centre. All the participants were required to wear a polar chest pulse sensor. No additional encouragement or any other type of communication was given to participants of the groups while they ran the treadmill test.

Following a general warm-up on the treadmill, participants were given time to stretch before beginning the treadmill test. Each participant in both trials used the following test protocols for running to the point of exhaustion; the treadmill protocol began 11kms per hour with a 0% incline and it remained same on both occasions. Participants were instructed to run to exhaustion. Heart rate was monitored through out the test and maximum heart rate was recorded. The Borg RPE scale was explained to each participant prior to testing, a large hand written of the Borg RPE scale on chart paper was placed in front of the participants through out the duration of the tests and participants were asked to call out the number on the Borg scale at the end of each stage. RPE was recorded at the end of each stage until the participants reached his point of exhaustion and could no longer continue. Time to exhaustion, maximum heart rate and RPE were recorded at the point of exhaustion.

Participants refrained from all food and beverage consumption 2 hours prior to each treadmill test and they were instructed not to use any stimulated substances prior to testing. The participants were instructed to sleep at least 6-8 hours the night before each test and did not participate in any strenuous activity 24 hours prior to each treadmill test.

RESULTS:

Dependent t-test was used to determine the significant difference in RPE, maximum heart rate and time to exhaustion at 0.05 level of significance. The Statistical analysis of data related to RPE, Maximum Heart Rate &Time to Exhaustion is given below.

Table: 1.Rating Perceived Exertion of Group A in T₁ &T₂

Trials

Mean

S.D.

Calculated-t

Tabulated-t

T₁

15.50

1.58

4.263

1.734

T₂

12.8

0.92

d.f(18) at 0.05 level.

T₁ - first trial without music

T₂ - second trial with music

The above table-1 showed that there was significant difference between first trial without music & second trial with music in Rating Perceived Exertion of group A. As calculated t-value 4.263 was found higher than tabulated t-value 1.734 required to be significant at 0.05 level of significance.

Table: 2.Maximum Heart Rate of Group A in T₁ &T₂

Trials

Mean

S.D.

Calculated-t

Tabulated-t

T₁

151.30

9.45

8.84

1.734

T₂

166.40

6.93

d.f(18) at 0.05 level.

T₁ - first trial without music

T₂ - second trial with music

The above table-2 showed that there was significant difference between first trial without music & second trial with music in Maximum Heart Rate of group A. As calculated t-value 8.84 was found higher than tabulated t-value 1.734 required to be significant at 0.05 level of significance.

Table: 3.Time to Exhaustion of Group A in T₁ &T₂

Trials

Mean

S.D.

Calculated-t

Tabulated-t

T₁

25.20

5.30

6.85

1.73

T₂

31.50

7.07

d.f(18) at 0.05 level.

T₁ - first trial without music

T₂ - second trial with music

The above table-3 showed that was there significant difference between first trial without music & second trial with music in Time to Exhaustion of group A. As calculated t-value 6.85 was found higher than tabulated t-value 1.734 required to be significant at 0.05 level of significance.

Table: 4.Rating Perceived Exertion of Group B in T₁ &T₂

Trials

Mean

S.D.

Calculated-t

Tabulated-t

T₁

14.9

1.67

0.361

1.734

T₂

14.8

1.39

d.f(18) at 0.05 level.

T₁ - first trial without music

T₂ - second trial without music

The above table-4 showed that there was no significant difference between first trial & second trial without music in Rating Perceived Exertion of group B. As calculated t-value 0.361 was found lesser than tabulated t-value 1.734 required to be significant at 0.05 level of significance.

Table: 5.Maximum Heart Rate of Group B in T₁ &T₂

Trials

Mean

S.D.

Calculated-t

Tabulated-t

T₁

149.30

9.73

0.681

1.734

T₂

149.80

10.50

d.f(18) at 0.05 level.

T₁ - first trial without music

T₂ - second trial without music

The above table-5 showed that there was no significant difference between first trial & second trial without music in Maximum Heart Rate of group B. As calculated t-value 0.681 was found lesser than tabulated t-value 1.734 required to be significant at 0.05 level of significance.

Table: 6.Time to Exhaustion of Group B without music

Trials

Mean

S.D.

Calculated-t

Tabulated-t

T₁

25.90

5.13

0.31

1.734

T₂

25.70

6.00

d.f (18) at 0.05 level.

T₁ - first trial without music

T₂ - second trial without music

The above table-5 showed that there was no significant difference between first trial & second trial without music in Time to Exhaustion of group B. As calculated t-value 0.31 was found lesser than tabulated t-value 1.734 required to be significant at 0.05 level of significance.

Discussion:

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of music on University male Physical education Students work output - Rating Perceived Exertion, Maximum Heart Rate, Time to Exhaustion(TTE). The findings indicate that music had Psychophysical effect on the athletes, as measured by RPE, Maximum HR and TTE. Based upon previous research, it was hypothesized that RPE would be lower during sub maximal intensities while listening to music. The findings of this study are congruent with previous research which found RPE to be lower during sub maximal exercise when listening to music had effect on physiological responses to exercise in the present study, as measured by time to exhaustion and maximum heart rate (Boutcher&Trenske 1990; Copeland & Franks, 1991).The finding of this study also congruent with the study conducted (Szmedra&Bacharach,1998; Copeland & Franks, 1991),music positively affected physiological variables in trained & untrained individuals ,including HR,Blood Lactate, Systolic Blood Pressure and Time to Exhaustion. Evidence from this study suggests that music will affect running performance or perception of effort in physical education students. It is also important that further research be conducted to determine how different types & intensities of music affect work output &RPE in physical education students.

The result of this study suggests that physical education teachers & coaches may benefit their students by playing music which in many ways shall depicts the intensity of the upcoming workout as students enter the workout room. In this way, the increase in respiration & moderate increases in heart rate from the music will prepare the students for better the forthcoming workout.

Many health & fitness professionals are currently working with the obese, physically challenged, due to neuromuscular or orthopedic disorders and daily life style. The use of music can be advocated to enhance a persons gait, fitness level, gross motor skills, leading to increased stability &mobility of the clients.

References

Ansel, M.H., and Marisi.D.Q.(1978).Effects of music and rhythm on physical performance. The Research Quarterly,49(2),109-13.

Borg, G.A.V. (1982).Psychological bases of perceived exertion. Medicine and Science in sports and Exercise, 14,337-381.

Boutcher, S. H., & Trenske, M. (1990). The effects of sensory deprivation and music on perceived exertion and affect during exercise. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 12, 167-176.

Copeland, B. L., & Franks, B. D. (1991). Effects of types and intensities of background music on treadmill endurance. The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 31, 100-103.

Dainow, E. (1977). Physical effects and motor responses to music. Journal of Research in Music Education, 25, 211-221.

Ellis, D. S., & Brighouse, G. (1952). Effects of music on respiration and heart-rate. The American Journal of Psychology, 65, 39-47.

Karageorghis,I.C.,Priest,D.L.,Terry,P.C.,(2006b).Redesign and initial validation of an assessment of an instrument to assess the motivational qualities of music in exercise:The Brunel Music Rating Inventory-2.Journal of Sports Sciences,24(8)

Potteiger,J.A.,Schroeder,J.M.,Gogg,K.L.(2000).Influence of music on rating of perceived exertion during 20 minutes of moderate intensity exercise.Perceptual and motor Skills,91,848-854.

Priest,D.,Ksrageorghis,C.I.,Sharp,N.C.(2004).The characteristics and effects of motivational music in exercise settings:the possible influence of gender,age,frequency of attendance and time to attendance.Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness,44,77-86.

Rejeski,W.J.(1985). Perceived exertion: an active or passive process?Journal of sport Psychology,7,371-78.

Reynolda & Gretchen,"Phys Ed: Does music make you Exercise Harder?".The New York times, August 25,2010.

Szmedra,L.,and Bacharach,D.W.(1998).Effects of music on perceived exertion,plasma lactate,norepinephrine and cardiovascular hemodynamics during treadmill running.International journal of Sports Medicine,19(1),32-37.

Tenenbaum,G.,Lidor.R.,Lavayan,N.,Morroww,K.,Tonnel,S., Johnson,M.(2007).The effects of music type on running perseverance and coping with effort sensations.Psychology of sports and Exercise,5,89-109.

Yamashita,S.,Iwai,K.,Akimoto,Kono,I.(2006).Effects of music during exercise on RPE,heart rate and the autonomic nervous system.Journal of Sports Mediciene and Physical Fitness,46(3),425-30.


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Vol: 1 Issue: 2010