The NAPESS Journal of Physical Education & Sports Science, Under the aegis of NAPESS
ISSN 2229 – 7049 NAPESS – Journal Of Physical Education And Sports Science (Print)
ISSN 2229 – 7316 NAPESS – Journal Of Physical Education And Sports Science (Online)
22011 Vol: 1 Issue: 2010

EFFICACY OF INTENSIVE AND EXTENSIVE INTERVAL TRAINING AND ITS CESSATION ON SELECTED SPEED PARAMETERS

Author: Mr. Rajasekar, Research Scholar  —  Co-Author: Dr. P. JOHNSON, Assistant Professor —  Date: 2011-06-01

Abstract: The objective of this study was to determine the efficiency of intensive and extensive interval training and detraining on selected speed parameters. To achieve the purpose of the study 45 male students were randomly selected and segregated them into three groups of 15 each. Speed, speed endurance and anaerobic power were considered as criterion variables, and these variables were assessed prior to and immediately after 12 weeks of training and also during the period of cessation of experimental treatment for 40 days at an interval of every 10 days, from intensive and extensive interval training groups and control group. The data collected was analyzed statistically using analysis of covariance and 3 x 5 factorial ANOVA with last factor repeated measures. The results of the study revealed that there was significant improvement on selected speed parameters, and the findings also showed that there was a significant decrease during the detraining period.

-*-*-*-

EFFICACY OF INTENSIVE AND EXTENSIVE INTERVAL TRAINING AND ITS CESSATION ON SELECTED SPEED PARAMETERS

*Mr. Rajasekar and **Dr.P.Johnson

* Research Scholar & **Assistant Professor,
University College of Physical Education & Sports Sciences,
Acharya Nagarjuna University, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, India.

Abstract

The objective of this study was to determine the efficiency of intensive and extensive interval training and detraining on selected speed parameters. To achieve the purpose of the study 45 male students were randomly selected and segregated them into three groups of 15 each. Speed, speed endurance and anaerobic power were considered as criterion variables, and these variables were assessed prior to and immediately after 12 weeks of training and also during the period of cessation of experimental treatment for 40 days at an interval of every 10 days, from intensive and extensive interval training groups and control group. The data collected was analyzed statistically using analysis of covariance and 3 x 5 factorial ANOVA with last factor repeated measures. The results of the study revealed that there was significant improvement on selected speed parameters, and the findings also showed that there was a significant decrease during the detraining period.


Introduction

Scientific training methods and application of basic principles of body mechanics in sports skill have been attributed to the higher level of performance in sports skills. Performance is the combined result of coordinated exertion and integration of a variety of functions. Although genetic factors environment and geographic location have an important role in performance, to certain extent performance depends upon the physical and motor fitness qualities in which definite improvement can be achieved through appropriate training (Boucher and Malina, 1999).

Sports' training is a programme of exercise designed to improve the skills and increase the energy capacities of an athlete for a particular event. These basic training procedures will serve better when utilized with modifications suited to individuals or a group dealt with. Sports activities consist of motor movement and action and their success depends to a great extent on how correctly they are performed. Techniques of training and improvement of tactical efficiency play a vital role in a training process (Fox, 1984).

One method of training that allows appropriate metabolic systems to be stressed is interval training. Interval training is based on the concept that more work can be performed at higher exercise intensities with the same or less fatigue compared to continuous running. The theoretical metabolic profile for exercise and rest intervals stressing anaerobic metabolism, fast glycolysis and phosphogen system is based on the knowledge of which energy systems predominate during exercise and time of substrate recovery. By choosing appropriate exercise intensities, exercise duration and rest interval, the appropriate energy systems can be trained (Baechle, 1994).

To bring about positive changes in an athlete's state and exercise overload must be applied. The training adaptation takes place only if the magnitude of the training load is above the habitual level. If an athlete uses a standard exercise with the same training load over a very long time, there will be no additional adaptations and the level of physical fitness will not substantially change. If the training load is too low, detraining occurs. Four factors mainly determine the time course of detraining; (1) duration of the immediately preceding period of training (period of accumulation),
(2) training experience of the athletes, (3) targeted motor abilities, and (4) amount of specific training loads during detraining (Zatsiorsky, 1995).

It has been scientifically accepted that any systemic training over a continuous period of time would lead to produce changes on athletic qualities. Based on reviewing the related literature, the following hypotheses were framed. Firstly, there would be significant improvement on selected speed parameters due to intensive and extensive interval training. Secondly, there would be significant differences between the experimental groups in improving the selected speed parameters. Thirdly, there would be a significant reduction of performance on selected speed parameters of experimental groups during the period of training cessation.

Method

Participants

Forty-five male students (age 17 ± 0.6 years, height 1.63 ± 4 cm and weight 59 ± 2 kg) were recruited for this study. After being fully informed of the risk associated with the study, the subjects gave their written informed consent to participate. The qualified medical officer examined the subjects and certified that they were fit enough to undergo the experimental protocol.

Training Regimen

The selected subjects were randomly segregated into three groups of 15 each. The group I underwent intensive interval training, group II underwent extensive interval training and group III acted as control. The duration of the training programme was 12 weeks with three sessions per week on alternative days. The training load for intensive and extensive interval training groups was 80-95% and 65-80% respectively. After 10 to 15 minutes of warm up at self selected workload, the subjects performed the interval training for 45 minutes to one hour per session. The subjects performed short sprints training for two days, and speed endurance training once in a week. Distance sprinted were 40-80m in short sprints and 120-180m in speed endurance training. An active recovery of 1-3 minutes between repetitions and 5 minutes between sets was given to intensive interval training group, whereas, extensive interval training group was provided with 3-4 minutes between repetitions and 5 minutes between sets.

After the completion of twelve week of interval training the subjects of experimental and control groups were physically detrained for 40 days. During this period the subjects were assessed once in 10 days (four cessation periods) to analysis whether there is any decrease in performance on the selected variables.

Testing Regimen

The selected dependent variables such as speed, speed endurance and anaerobic power were assessed prior to and immediately after the training period and also during the cessation of training for forty days at an interval of every 10 days. The speed was assessed by 50m run, speed endurance was assessed by administering 150m run and anaerobic power was assessed by using Margaria Kalamen anaerobic power test.

Statistical Analysis

The data pertaining to the variables confined to this study was examined by ANCOVA to determine the difference in the improvement of selected variables among groups by nullifying the pretest differences. The data collected from the three groups on speed, speed endurance and anaerobic power during post test, first, second, third and fourth cessation period was statistically analysed by using 3 x 5 factorial ANOVA with last factor repeated measure. Whenever the 'F' ratio was found to be significant, Scheffé S post hoc test was used to determine the significant paired mean difference. The level of significance was accepted at P < 0.05.

Results

Table 1

Adjusted Posttest Mean on Speed, Speed Endurance and Anaerobic Power of Experimental and Control Groups.

Variable

Intensive

Interval Training

Extensive

Interval Training

Control Group

SOV

Sum of Squares

df

Mean squares

Obtained
'F' ratio

Speed

7.193

7.507

7.853

B

3.252

2

1.626

147.818

W

0.440

41

0.011

Speed Endurance

17.791

17.046

18.523

B

16.040

2

8.020

67.966

W

4.832

41

0.118

Anaerobic Power

107.398

105.254

97.417

B

755.748

2

377.874

28.867

W

536.679

41

13.090

The required table value for significance at 0.05 level of confidence with df 2 and 41 is 3.226.

The result of this study shows that there was a significant difference existing between experimental and control groups, since the obtained 'F' ratio value of adjusted posttest means were 147.818, 67.966 and 28.867 on speed, speed endurance and anaerobic power were greater than the required table value of 3.226 for given degrees of freedom at 0.05 level of confidence. Hence, the adjusted posttest 'F' ratio value was found to be significant, Scheffé S post hoc test was applied to find out the paired mean difference, if any.

Table 2
Scheffé S Post Hoc Test for Paired Mean difference on Speed, Speed Endurance and Anaerobic Power

Variables

Adjusted Post Test Mean

Mean Differences

Confidence Interval

Intensive

Interval Training

Extensive

Interval Training

Control Group

Speed

7.193

7.507

0.314*

0.097

7.193

7.853

0.660*

0.097

7.507

7.853

0.346*

0.097

Speed Endurance

17.791

17.046

0.745*

0.319

17.791

18.523

0.732*

0.319

17.046

18.523

1.477*

0.319

Anaerobic Power

107.398

105.254

2.144

3.356

107.398

97.417

9.981*

3.356

105.254

97.417

7.837*

3.356

*Significant at .05 level.

Table-2 shows that both the training groups were significantly contributing to the improvement of selected speed parameters, however intensive interval training has better influence on speed and anaerobic power than that of the extensive interval training, whereas, extensive interval training has better influence on speed endurance than that of the intensive interval training.

The post training data on speed, speed endurance and anaerobic power of intensive interval training group has been increased by 9%, 4% and 10% from that of the baseline and thereafter during the detraining period the data on selected speed parameters declined to near baseline after fourth cessation period. Similarly, post training data on speed, speed endurance and anaerobic power of extensive interval training group has been increased by 5%, 7% and 9%, and it was observed that selected speed parameters reversed its training impact to near baseline after fourth cessation period of detraining.

From the result of the study it was found that there was no significant reduction in speed and anaerobic power during the first cessation period of both the experimental groups and during the second, third and fourth cessation periods significant reduction of performance was noticed. The result of the study also shows that speed endurance was not significantly reduced during the first and second cessation period but there was a reverse of the training impact during third and fourth cessation periods. However the reduction of the speed and anaerobic power are higher for intensive interval training group when compared with extensive interval training group during the early stage then it was gradually reduced. The rate of decrease on speed endurance was higher for extensive interval training group during the early stage than the intensive interval training group thereafter it was gradually declined towards the base line.

Discussion

The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of intensive and extensive interval training and its cessation on selected speed parameters. The result of this study show that there was a significant improvement on selected speed parameters due to intensive and extensive interval training, and thereby the researcher's first hypothesis was accepted. Further, the study revealed that intensive interval training is better in improving speed and anaerobic power and extensive interval training is better in improving speed endurance. Thus, the researcher's second hypothesis was also accepted.

The foresaid observations of this study were in par with the earlier studies. Edge et al., (2005) found that high intensity interval training showed greater improvement in repeated sprint ability than moderate intensity interval training group. Dupont et al., (2004) concluded that sprint performance was improved due to high intensity interval training. Alcevedo and Goldfarb (1989) pointed out that to produce best performance, training intensities have to be equal to those, which will be attempted in the competition. Majdell and Alexander (1991) concluded that sprinting speed improved by a six week programme of training including conventional sprint exercises and over speed training. Creer et al., (2004) found that four weeks of high intensity sprint interval training combined with endurance training increased motor units activation. Dawson et al., (1998) found that six weeks of short sprint training improved speed and endurance and repeated sprinting ability. Cheetham and Williams (1987) found that 11.1% of improvement in peak running speed following high intensity training.

MacDougall et al., (1996) found that a relatively brief period of sprint training increased aerobic and anaerobic capacities in initially untrained individuals. Wenzel (1992) pointed out that speed training is an effective way to improve anaerobic power. Medbo and Burgers (1990) identified that sprinters have better anaerobic capacity than endurance athletes due to increase in anaerobic energy release. They also suggest that anaerobic capacity can be improved within six weeks of training. Laursen et al., (2006) concluded that anaerobic capacity was significantly improved due to high intensity interval training regimen. Nowberry and flowers (1999) concluded that sprint training in significantly better in improving anaerobic power. According to Fincher (2001) high intensity training produces greater anaerobic power.

The third hypothesis formulated in this study was accepted as the findings of the study revealed that there was no significant reduction in speed and anaerobic power during the first cessation, but thereafter significant reduction was noticed for both the experimental groups. It was also found that speed endurance was not significantly reduced during the first and second cessation period but it was gradually declined to base line during the third and fourth cessation period for both the experimental groups.

According to Wilmore and Costill, the greater the gains during training, the greater the losses during detraining. The well trained person has more to lose than the untrained person. According to Baechle (1994) endurance adaptations are most sensitive to periods of inactivity because of their enzymatic basis. When detraining occurs, the physiological functions go back to the normal. Tudor O. Bompa (1999) has written "speed tends to be the first ability affected by detraining, since the break down of protein and the degenerations of motor units decreases the power capabilities of muscle contraction. Speed deterioration may also be due to the nervous system's sensitivity to detraining. He pointed out that speed decrease followed by power, since muscle tension depends on the force and speed of stumili and firing rate.

It is inferred from the above literatures and from the results of the present study that systematically designed interval training develops the selected dependent variables such as speed, speed endurance and anaerobic power. The significant improvement in the above said variables highlights the effect of interval running training package designed for this study, its systematic, progressive loading patterns and appropriate recovery phase between session, set and repetition during the training period.

The impact of detraining was considerable with a linear deterioration of performance with extendable periods of cessation. Therefore, to prevent or minimize the changes that result from period of physical inactivity, the athletes and players are advised to participate in physical activities during the period of training cessation.

References

Alcevedo, E. O., and Goldfarb, A. H. (1989). "Increased Training Intensity Effects on Plasma Lactate, Ventilatory Threshold, and Endurance", Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 21, pp.563-568.

Baechle, Thomas R. Essentials of Strength Training and Conditioning, (Champaign: Human Kinetics, 1994), p.318.

Bompa, Tudor O. Periodization: Theory and Methodology of Training, (4th ed.), (Champaign, Illinois: Human Kinetics Publishers, 1999), pp.86-87.

Boucher, C., and Malina, R.M. (1999). "Genetics of Physical Fitness and Motor Performance", Exercise and Sports Sciences Reviews, 11, p. 3206.

Cheetham, ME., and Williams, C. (1987). "High Intensity Training and Treadmill Sprint Performance". British Journal of Sports Medicine, 21:2, pp. 14-7

Creer, AR., et al. (2004). "Neural, Metabolic, and Performance Adaptations to Four Weeks of High Intensity Sprint Interval Training in Trained Cyclists", Int J Sports Med.25:2, pp. 92-8.

Dupont, G., et al. (2004). "The Effect of In Season, High Intensity Interval Training in Soccer Players", Journal of Strength Conditioning Research, 18:3, pp. 584-9.

Edge, et al. (2005). "Effects of High and Moderate-Intensity Training on Metabolism and Repeated Sprints". Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 37:11, pp. 1975-82.

Fox, Edward L. Sports Physiology, (Philadelphia: Saunders College Publishers, 1984), p. 401.

Laursen, P.B., et al. (2005). Influence of high-intensity interval training on adaptations in well-trained cyclists. J Strength Cond Res. 19:3, pp. 527-33.

MacDougall, J. D., et al. (1996). "Muscle Enzymatic Adaptations to Sprint Interval Training", Medicine and Science in Exercise and Sports, 28:5, p.126.

Majdell, R., and Alexander, M.J. L. (1991). "The Effect of Over Speed Training on Kinematic Variables in Sprinting", Journal of Human Movement Study, 21:1.

Medbo, J. I., and Burgers, S. (1990). "Effect of Training on Anaerobic Capacity", Journal of Medicine, Science, Sports and Exercise, 22:4, pp. 501-507.

Newberry, J. E., and Flowers, L. (1999). "Effectiveness of Combining Sprint and High-Repetition Squat Resistance Training in Anaerobic Conditioning", Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 31:5, p.1384

Wenzel, Ralph R. (1992). "The Effect of Speed Versus Non - Speed Training in Power Development", The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 6:2, pp.82 - 87.

Wilmore, Jack H. and Costill, David L., Physiology of Sports and Exercise, (Champaign: Human Kinetics, 1994), p.403.

Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M. Science and Practice of Strength Training, (Champaign: Human Kinetics, 1995), p.123.


Back To Table of Content

Vol: 1 Issue: 2010