The NAPESS Journal of Physical Education & Sports Science, Under the aegis of NAPESS
ISSN 2229 – 7049 NAPESS – Journal Of Physical Education And Sports Science (Print)
ISSN 2229 – 7316 NAPESS – Journal Of Physical Education And Sports Science (Online)
22011 Vol: 1 Issue: 2010

COMPARISON OF SPEED AND AEROBIC FITNESS BETWEEN HIGH AND LOW ACHIEVERS OF RDT HOCKEY ACADEMY HOCKEY PLAYERS

Author: Mr. G.P. RAJU, Research Scholar  —  Co-Author: Dr. P. JOHNSON, Assistant Professor —  Date: 2011-06-01

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to compare high and low achievers on speed and aerobic fitness of hockey players from RDT Hockey Academy, Anantapur, Andhra Pradesh. To achieve this purpose, a total of twenty nine boys from RDT Hockey Academy, were considered.

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COMPARISON OF SPEED AND AEROBIC FITNESS BETWEEN HIGH AND LOW ACHIEVERS OF RDT HOCKEY ACADEMY HOCKEY PLAYERS

*Mr. G.P. RAJU and **Dr. P. JOHNSON

* Research Scholar & **Assistant Professor,
University College of Physical Education & Sports Sciences,
Acharya Nagarjuna University, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, India.

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to compare high and low achievers on speed and aerobic fitness of hockey players from RDT Hockey Academy, Anantapur, Andhra Pradesh. To achieve this purpose, a total of twenty nine boys from RDT Hockey Academy, were considered. These players were classified into two groups namely high achiever (17) and low achievers (12), on the basis of level of participation in tournaments. This data was collected during the academic year '08 and '09. The anthropometric measures height, weight, percent body fat was measured initially for all the subjects. The criterion variables chosen for this study were speed which was measured by 30 meters sprint test. Aerobic capacity (VO2 max) was estimated from 2400 meters run. ANOVA of unequal sample was employed to know the difference between high and low achievers hockey players from RDT Hockey Academy. The level of confidence was fixed at 0.05 for significance. Since two groups are involved Post-hoc test was not applied. The high achievers hockey players exhibited higher performances in sprint test and aerobic fitness that seems to be the result of a combined effect of age and level of competition.

Keywords: Hockey, Speed, Aerobic fitness, VO2 max, ANOVA

Introduction

Match analyses make clear that field hockey is a high intensity non-continuous game in which the physiological demands are considerable (Ghosh, et al., 1991; Reilly & Borrie, 1992; Aziz, Chia & Teh, 2000). Players carry out all sorts of explosive actions such as intermittent sprinting with many changes of direction, cruising, and dribbling the ball, placing it in the category of ''heavy exercise''(Patel, Stier & Luckstead, 2002). To perform at the highest level, players need a well developed interval endurance capacity. This is the ability to perform high intensity activities such as running and sprinting, as well as the ability to recover well during low intensity activities such as walking and jogging (Lemmink & Visscher, 2003). In terms of energy requirements, the aerobic capacity is most important during matches at the elite level. Although great anaerobic capacity is needed during the many brief bursts of high energy release, it is the aerobic capacity that is needed for efficient recovery during the short rest periods (Bhanot & Sidhu, 1983).

In ''normal'' children, aerobic capacity that is, maximum oxygen uptake increases proportionally to body size and mass in both sexes (Krahenbuhl, Skinner & Kohrt, 1985; Kemper, 2004; Kemper & Koppes, 2004). Generally, anaerobic performance also increases with age. Girls improve from late childhood to 14-15 years of age, whereas in boys the increase continues to 19 years. In late childhood and early adolescence, sex differences are evident and they are magnified later in adolescence (Martin & Malina, 1998).

Factors that affect the development of aerobic and anaerobic capacity are multidimensional. The adolescent period is characterized by acceleration of somatic growth and rapid changes in body composition and hormonal status, including growth spurt and increase in fat-free mass (Bitar, et al, 2000). Anthropometric characteristics such as body height, lean body mass, and percentage body fat influence the physiological aspects of a sports performance, such as interval endurance capacity. Increase in body height is related to an increase in lung volume and therefore with an increase in metabolism and endurance. A gain in lean body mass is related to an increase in muscle mass and therefore positively influences endurance, in contrast with a gain in body fat, which negatively influences endurance (Astrand, et al, 2003).

It is generally known that, with training, players can improve their performance by increasing aerobic and anaerobic energy output during a particular movement. This is also the case in youth players (Powers & Howley, 2001). However, it is not self evident that all players make use of their interval endurance capacity to the full during training or competition. A player has to be motivated to do so because intense activity can cause uncomfortable side effects such as fatigue and muscle soreness. Motivation affects the intensity and persistence of a player's behaviour, which in sport can obviously have a big impact on performance (Silva, 1984).The above characteristics of the players that is, age, performance level, sex, anthropometric factors, training, and motivation can potentially explain the development of interval endurance capacity in talented youth field hockey players. The goal of this study was to compare high and low achievers on speed and aerobic fitness of hockey players from RDT Hockey Academy, Anantapur, Andhra Pradesh.

Methodology

Subjects

To achieve this purpose, a total of twenty nine boys from RDT Hockey Academy, Anantapur, Andhra Pradesh, were considered. These players were classified into two groups namely high achiever (17) and low achievers (12), on the basis of level of participation in tournaments. The players who played nationals were considered as high achievers and state level participants wee considered as low achievers. The mean age of the selected subjects was 13.91±1.78. The training regimen lasted for one year. These subjects were from below poverty line families in rural and suburbs surroundings. In the RDT Hockey Academy, Anantapur, the students were provided with free boarding and lodging, so that they can meet out the energy requirements for their optimal growth and hockey playing ability.

Variables and tests

This data was collected during the academic year '08 and '09. The anthropometric measures height, weight, percent body fat was measured initially for all the subjects and later they were classified into two groups on basis of level of participation in competition. The criterion variables chosen for this study were speed which was measured by 30 meters sprint test. Aerobic capacity (VO2 max) was estimated from 2400 meters run. The following equation can be used to estimate VO2max.

VO2max (ml/kg/min) = 3.5 + 483 / (time in minutes)

Training Protocol

The subjects of both the age categories confined to this study underwent training regimen consisting two sessions a day, seven daysa week for forty-eight weeks. Pre-season training starts with conditioning and strength training, moving on to skill training as the season approaches. Match practice and fitness are improved moving into the season. There are usually 3-4 hockey skills training sessions per week with a game on the weekend. Training sessions are generally 1-2 hours in length with the intensity of sessions reducing towards the end of the week in preparation for competition. Cross training sessions such as resistance training, flexibility, speed and endurance may form parts of these sessions or extra training throughout the week. The usual competitive season involves one game per week on the weekend.

Statistical technique

ANOVA of unequal sample was employed to know the difference between high and low achievers hockey players from RDT Hockey Academy, Anantapur, Andhra Pradesh. The level of confidence was fixed at 0.05 for significance. Since two groups are involved Post-hoc test was not applied.

Results

The anthropometrical characteristics of the participants to this study are shown in table 1.

Table 1: Anthropometric characteristics of high and low achievers

Variables

Groups

All

High achievers

Low achievers

Age

13.91±1.78

13.43±1.76

14.59±1.65

Height

154.43±8.15

153.76±9.26

155.37±6.55

weight

39.09±6.33

38.45±6.14

40.00±6.76

% Fat

8.77±0.95

8.73±0.74

8.82±0.88

The table 2 reveals that there is a significant difference in speed between high and low achievers as the obtained F ratio of 5.17 is greater than the required table value of 4.20 at α = 0.05 for the df of 1and 27. Furthermore high achievers have greater aerobic fitness than low achievers (59.28 ± 3.38 and 56.66 ± 2.51 ml.kg.-1min-1 respectively). The difference of 3.92% was observed in speed between high and low achievers of hockey players from RDT Hockey Academy, Anantapur, Andhra Pradesh. The high achievers were significantly faster in 50m sprint than low achievers (4.89 ± 0.24 and 5.09 ± 0.21 seconds respectively).

Table 2: ANOVA for speed and aerobic fitness of high and low achievers

Variable

Groups

No of Subjects

Mean± SD

SOV

ss

df

MS

F

Speed

High Achievers

17

4.89 ± 0.24

B

.282

1

.282

5.17*

Low Achievers

12

5.09 ± 0.21

W

1.468

27

.054

Aerobic Fitness

High Achievers

17

59.28 ± 3.38

B

48.282

1

48.282

5.16*

Low Achievers

12

56.66 ± 2.51

W

252.350

27

9.346

*Significant at 0.05 level of confidence

From table 2 it is also understood that there is a significant difference in aerobic fitness too between high and low achievers as the obtained F ratio of 5.16 is greater than the required table value of 4.20 at α = 0.05 for the df of 1and 27. The difference of 4.42% was observed in aerobic fitness between high and low achievers of hockey players from RDT Hockey Academy, Anantapur, Andhra Pradesh.

Discussion

Hockey is one of the most popular games in the world in general and India in particular. Hockey being most competitive sport, a player who is physically fit does not only enjoy more but he is also capable of using all the skills attained and mastered by him throughout, right from beginning to end of the game. The twin combination of both skill and physical fitness is indispensible for a player without either of which he will not be able to achieve much, specifically in order to play any ball game competently. Star player must have stamina to run for at least three hours at a stretch, strength to execute the skills like hitting, pushing, scooping more forcibly, speed to run quickly with or without the ball, power to execute any skill with maximum force in minimum possible time as for trying in shooting circle and clearing the ball from dangerous zone, agility to rapidly change body position and direction like in tackling and dodging, balance the agility to maintain body equilibrium during vigorous movements like shooting on wrong foot and a player should have good reaction time during stopping, tackling and in goal keeping as well (Nabhendra Singh, 2010).

The purpose of this study was to compare speed and aerobic fitness between high and low achievers hockey players from RDT Hockey Academy, Anantapur, Andhra Pradesh. The result showed high achievers found better than low achievers in both speed and aerobic capacity. The aerobic capacity of the high achievers (59.28 ±3.38 ml kg−1 min−1) and low achievers (56.66±2.51 ml kg−1 min −1) show difference this is possibly due to supervised fitness training performed throughout the year (Proctor & Joyner, 1997; Lawrenson, Hoff & Richardson, 2004) daily lifestyle (Aoyagi & Katsuta, 1990) and/or genetic factors (Taylor, Cable, Faulkner, et al, 2004). The possible explanation for the difference between the two groups of boys is the greater number of hours spent in training. It is well known that with training players can improve their performance by increasing their aerobic and anaerobic energy output during a particular movement. This is also the case in youth players (Powers & Howley, 2001).

Another interesting finding in this study was the fact that high achievers outclassed low achievers, probably because of age and weight differences which are determinant factors in short term muscle power (Van Praagh and Doré 2002). Anaerobic trainability increases with age (from childhood to adulthood with greater increases during puberty) and also with the increase in glycolytic enzyme activity (particularly phosphofructokinase) triggered by training (Fournier et al., 1982).

According to Howe, Davidson and Sloboda (1998), a talent originates in genetically transmitted structures and hence is at least partly innate. It is likely that both nature and nurture are essential, since today the standard of competition has increased to the point that only those athletes who combine their talent with intensive training have the potential to achieve elite status.

Conclusion

The hockey players considered as high achievers in this study exhibited higher performances than their counterparts in sprint test and aerobic fitness that seems to be the result of a combined effect of age and level of competition.

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