Effect of Aerobics Training Programme on Body Fat and Selected Anthropometric Measurements of Obese Boys
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Effect of Aerobics Training Programme on Body Fat and Selected Anthropometric Measurements of Obese Boys
Dr. Arvind Mishra
Head
Dept. of Physical Education
Allahabad Degree College, Allahabad
University of Allahabad
E mail arvindadc@gmail.com
Cell No.09415014720
Abstract:
Our daily life is a last and luxuries due to people are not physically fit and strong. They faced so many problem related to health. To cure those problems everyday requires exercise physical fitness and health are the integral parts of human life. Fitness and wellness of a person are correlated to each other. Aerobics gives a tremendous helps in not only developing ones physical fitness ability but also helps in making our body into good physique or body shape it also helps to reduce the BMI [Body mass index] . In this study a sample of 50 males subjects were selected from Allahabad Public School, Allahabad, by using the BMI formula by considering purposive sampling technique. They were in the age group of 12 to 14 years. The investigator selected two groups viz; experimental and control groups. The experimental group was given training in aerobic and control group was under gone day to day activity. The duration of experimental group is for eight weeks. From the interpretation of the data the results of Anthropometric measurements which shows significant enhancement in body weight in which "t" value is 4.02 which is statistically significant at the 0.01 level. B.M.I measurement, "t" value is 2.94 which is significant at 0.05 level. Chest circumference "t" value is 4.38 are statistically significant at 0.01 level. Abdominal circumference "t" value is 4.16 which is significant at 0.01 level. Thigh circumference "t" value is 8.70 which is significant at 0.01 level. Triceps skin fold "t" value is 3.26 which is significant at 0.05 level. Sub scapula skin fold "t" value is 4.98 which is significant at 0.01 level. Therefore statistically concluded that the Aerobic exercise training programme has good effect on B.M.I. anthropometric measurement and body fat.
K ey words : Aerobics, Body Composition, Obesity, Anthropometry.
Introduction :
The life of our modern civilization Due to scientific development enjoys the high level of physical comforts even know to men. Modern technology is trying hard to make our life easier, more luxurious more comfortable but less vigorous. Physical fitness is the most vital element of human life because for many people, women and children like the courage of modern living is stress can institute a whole host of physical disorders, headache migraine, back trouble etc. Exercise fights this arch, energy of health and happiness. It is free and it takes few hours to do so that no need of sleeping pills or laxatives. Now a day the word "Aerobic" is a new and certainly fashionable one. Aerobic gives a tremendous helping not only developing ones physical fitness ability but also helps in making our body into good physique or body shape. The objectives of the study were to study the effect of aerobic training on body Weight, Height, B.M.I, Chest circumference, Abdominal circumference, Thigh circumference, Triceps skin fold, Sub scapula skin fold, Thigh skin fold of experimental group and as compared to controlled group.
It was hypothesized that: There is no significant difference in the mean score of body Weight, mean score of standing Height, mean score of B.M.I, mean score of Chest circumference, mean score of abdominal circumference, mean score of Thigh circumference, mean score of Triceps skin fold, mean score of Sub scapula skin fold and mean score of Thigh skin fold of Control and Experimental group.
LIMITATION : It was not possible to control the day to day activities of the subjects selected for experimental as well as control group. The food habits, standard of living, rest and sleep of the selected subjects were not being controlled because the participants were coming from different socioeconomic background.
Method and Procedures:
A sample of 50 subjects (boys) were selected from Allahabad Public School, Allahabad by using the BMI formula by considering purposive sampling technique. They were in the age group of 12 to 14 years. There were two groups viz one was a control group and another was experimental group. The experimental group's subjects were exposed to training in aerobic exercise for total period of eight weeks, whereas the control group's subjects have not received the above training. However the subjects of control group were engaged with physical education activity. Daily program consist warming up exercises for 10 minutes, training for 40 minutes and cooling down for 10 minutes. The duration of training was 60 minutes 5 days per week for a total period of eight weeks.
To accomplish the study following dependent variables were included :
Blue print of Dependent variables
Variables 
Test 
Unit 
Height 
Standing height 
C.M 
Weight 
Body weight 
Kilogram 
Chest circumferences 
Chest circumferences 
C.M 
Abdomen circumferences 
Abdomen circumferences 
C.M 
Thigh circumferences 
Thigh circumferences 
C.M 
Triceps skin fold 
Triceps skin fold 
M.M 
Sub scapular skin fold 
Sub scapular skin fold 
M.M 
Thigh skin fold 
Thigh skin fold 
M.M 
Independent variables
Marching Grapevine L  Step, Vstep, Astep, Lunges, Mambo ChaChaCha, Knee Press down
The data were analyzed by using "t" scale with the help of SPSS software.
Results:
I. Result Of Selected Variables On The Controlled Group (Within group)
In the case of weight measured in body weight the mean scores of pre and post tests of the controlled group are 54.84 (±9.46) and 54.86 (±9.49) respectively, whereas, the mean difference is  .02 and "t‟ value is  .22 which is not significant at 0.05 level (p>0.05). In the case of Height measured in standing height test the mean scores of pre and post test of the controlled group are 151.64 (±6.84) and 152.64 (±6.27) Respectively, whereas, the mean difference is1.00 and "t" value is which is.87 which is not significant at 0.05 level (p>0.05). In the case of BMI measured in Weight (in kg) / Height (in mts) formula of the controlled group are 23.72 (±2.68) and 23.56 (±2.69) respectively, whereas, the mean difference is .16 and "t" value is 1.52 which is not significant at 0.05 level (p>0.05) In the case of Chest circumference as measured in chest circumference test the mean scores of pre and post tests of the controlled group are 34.68(±2.86) and 34.84(±2.87) respectively, whereas, the mean difference is  .16 and "t" value is 1.69 which is not significant at 0.05 level (p>0.05) In the case of abdominal circumferences as measured by abdominal circumferences test the mean scores of pre and post test of the controlled group are 33.26(±3.03) and 33.24 (±3.48) respectively, whereas, the mean difference is .02 and "t" value is .13 which is not significant at 0.05 level (p>0.05). In the case of Thigh circumferences as measured in Thigh Circumferences test the mean scores of pre and post test of the controlled group are 22.80(±2.27) and 23.16 (±2.34) respectively, whereas, the mean difference is  .36 and "t" value is 2.69 which is significant at 0.05 level (p<0.05). In the case of Triceps skin fold as measured in Triceps skin Fold test the mean scores of pre and post test of the controlled group are 23.60(±6.36) and 23.80(±6.39) respectively, whereas, the mean difference is  .20 and "t" value is 1.15 which is not significant at 0.05 level (p<0.05). In the case of Sub scapular skin fold as measured in Sub Scapular skin fold test the mean scores of pre and post test of the controlled group are 27.36(±7.95) and 27.52 (±8.12) respectively, whereas, the mean difference is  .16 and "t" value is 1.00 which is not significant at 0.05 level (p<0.05). In the case of Thigh skin fold as measured in Thigh skin Fold test the mean scores of pre and post test of the controlled group are 37.40(±8.56) and 37.72(±8.81) respectively, whereas, the mean difference is  .32 and "t" value is 1.78 which is not significant at 0.05 level (p<0.05).
Table1
Comparison of mean between the pre & post of the control group
Variable 
Score Unit 
PreTest Mean ±S.D 
PostTest Mean ± S.D 
Mean Difference 
Standard Error 
't' 
Significance 
Weight 
Kg 
54.84 ( ±9.46) 
54.86 ( ±9.49) 
 .02 
0.9 
 .22 
.824 P>0.05 
Height 
C.M. 
151.64 ( ±6.84) 
152.64 ( ±6.27) 
1.00 
1.15 
.87 
.393 P>0.05 
BMI 
Kgm2 
23.72 ( ±2.68) 
23.56 ( ±2.69) 
.16 
.10 
1.52 
.140 P>0.05 
Chest circumference 
C.M. 
34.68 (±2.86) 
34.84 (±2.87) 
 .16 
.09 
1.69 
.103 P>0.05 
Abdominal circumference 
C.M. 
33.26 (±3.03) 
33.24 (±3.48) 
.02 
.16 
.13 
.900 P>0.05 
Thigh circumference 
C.M. 
22.80 (±2.27) 
23.16 (±2.34) 
 .36 
.13 
2.69 
.013 P<0.05 
Triceps Skin fold 
M.M. 
23.60 (±6.36) 
23.80 (±6.39) 
 .20 
.17 
1.15 
.260 P>0.05 
Sub Scapular Skin fold 
M.M. 
27.36 (±7.95) 
27.52 (±8.12) 
 .16 
.16 
1.00 
.327 P>0.05 
Height measured in standing height test the Mean scores of pre and post test of the experimental group are151.36 (±6.30) and152.68 (±5.62)respectively, whereas, the mean difference is 1.32 and "t" value is 2.91 which is significant at 0.05evel (p<0.05). It is seen from Table2 that in case of BMI measured in Weight (in kg) / Height (in mts)2 formula of the experimental group are23.74 (±2.83) and 23.17 (±2.87) respectively, whereas, the mean difference is .56 and "t" value is 6.35 which is significant at 0.01(p< 0.05). It is seen from Table2, that in case of Chest circumference as measured in chest circumference test the mean scores of pre and post tests of the experimental group are34.84 (±3.10) and 34.22 (±2.95) respectively, whereas, the mean difference is .62 and "t" value is 4.11 which is significant at 0.01 level (p<0.01). It is seen from Table2 that in case of abdominal circumferences as measured in abdominal circumferences test the mean scores of pre and post test of the experimental group are 33.04 (±3.69) and32.04 (±3.82) respectively, whereas, the mean difference is .17 and "t" value is 5.69 which is significant at 0.01 level (p<0.01). It is seen from Table2 that in case of Thigh circumferences as measured in Thigh Circumferences test the mean scores of pre and post test of the experimental group are 23.50 (±2.86) and 21.72 (±3.06) respectively, whereas, the mean difference is 1.78 and "t"value is 8.63 which is significant at 0.01 level (p<0.01). It is seen from Table2 that in case of Triceps skin fold as measured in Triceps skin Fold test the mean scores of pre and post test of the experimental group are23.68 (±3.88) and 23.08 (±3.57) respectively, whereas, the mean difference is .60 and "t" value is 3.46 which is significant at 0.05 level (p<0.05). It is seen from Table2 that in case of Sub scapular skin fold as measured in Sub Scapular skin fold test the mean scores of pre and post test of the experimental group are 26.96(±5.20) and 26.00 (±5.21) respectively, whereas, the mean difference is .96 and "t" value is 6.08 which is significant at 0.01 level (p<0.01). It is seen from Table2 that in case of Thigh skin fold as measured in Thigh skin Fold test the mean scores of pre and post test of the experimental group are39.28 (±7.68) and 38.40(±7.64ss) respectively, whereas, the mean difference is .88 and "t" value is 4.74 which is significant at 0.01 level (p<0.01)
III. Comparison of Results of Selected Variables, Between Control and Experimental Group.
In case of body weight the mean gain of the controlled and experimental group is .02 and .60 respectively, whereas the difference in mean gain of both group is .62 which is in favors of Experimental group however the "t" value of the same is 4.02 which is significant at 0.01 level. This indicates that the Aerobic training programme helps to lose the body weight significantly.
In case of Height the mean gain of the controlled and experimental group is 1.00 and 1.32 respectively, whereas the difference in mean gain of both group is .32 which is in favors of control group however the "t" value of the same is1.24 which is not significant at 0.05 level. This indicates that the Aerobic training programme not improves the Height significantly.
Thus, the null hypothesis, formulated in this study , "There is no significant different in the mean score of standing Height of control and experimental group" has been retained.
In case of B.M.I the mean gain of the controlled and experimental group is .16 and .56 respectively, where as the difference in mean gain of both group is .40 which is in favors of experimental group however the "t" value of the same is 2.94 which is significant at 0.05 level. This indicates that the Aerobic training programme not improves the B.M.I significantly.
In case of Chest circumference the mean gain of the controlled and experimental group is .16 and .62 respectively, whereas the difference in mean gain of both group is .78 which is in favors of experimental group however the "t" value of the same is 4.38 which is significant at 0.01 level. This indicates that the Aerobic training programme not improves the Chest circumferences significantly.
In case of Abdominal circumference the mean gain of the controlled and experimental group is .02 and 1.00 respectively, whereas the difference in mean gain of both group is .98 which is in favors of experimental group however the "t" value of the same is 4.16 which is significant at 0.01 level. This indicates that the Aerobic training programme improves the abdominal circumferences significantly.
In case of Thigh circumference the mean gain of the controlled and experimental group is .36 and 1.78 respectively, whereas the difference in mean gain of both group is 2.14 which is in favors of control group however the "t" value of the same is 8.70 which is significant at 0.01 level. This indicates that the Aerobic training programme not improves the Thigh circumferences significantly.
In case of Triceps Skin fold the mean gain of the controlled and experimental group is .20 and .60 respectively, whereas the difference in mean gain of both group is .80 which is in favors of experimental group however the "t" value of the same is 3.26 which is significant at 0.05 level. This indicates that the Aerobic training programme improves the Triceps Skin fold significantly.
In case of Sub scapula Skin fold the mean gain of the controlled and experimental group is .16 and .96 respectively, whereas the difference in mean gain of both group is 1.12 which is in favors of experimental group however the "t" value of the same is 4.98 which is significant at 0.01 level. This indicates that the Aerobic training programme improves the Sub scapula Skin fold significantly.
In case of Thigh Skin fold the mean gain of the controlled and experimental group is .32 and .88 respectively, whereas the difference in mean gain of both group is 1.20 which is in favors of experimental group however the „t‟ value of the same is 4.64 which is significant at 0.01 level. This indicates that the Aerobic training programme improves the Thigh Skin fold significantly.
Thus, the null hypothesis, formulated in this study, "There is no significant difference in the mean score of body Weight, mean score of B.M.I, mean score of Chest circumference, mean score of abdominal circumference, mean score of Thigh circumference, mean score of Triceps skin fold, mean score of Sub scapula skin fold and mean score of Thigh skin fold of Control and Experimental group" have been rejected.
Table 2
Comparison of Mean Gain in selected variables between Control and experimental group
Variables 
Group Compared 
Mean Gain 
Mean Difference 
Standard Error Mean Gain 
't' 
Significance. 

Height 
Control Vs Experimental 
1.00 1.32 
.32 
1.24 
.26 
.797 p>0.05 

B.M.I. 
Control Vs Experimental 
.16 .56 
.40 
.14 
2.94 
.005 P<0.05 

Chest Circumfer 
Control Vs Experimental 
.16 .62 
.78 
.17 
4.38 
.000 P<.000 

Abdominal Circumference 
Control Vs Experimental 
.02 1.00 
.98 
.23 
4.16 
.000 P<.000 

Thigh Circumference 
Control Vs Experimental 
.36 1.78 
2.14 
.25 
8.70 
.000 P<.000 

Triceps Skin fold 
Control Vs Experimental 
.20 .60 
.80 
.24 
3.26 
.002 P<.000 

Thigh Skin fold 
Control Vs Experimental 
.32 .88 
1.20 
.25 
4.64 
.000 P<.000 















Discussion
From the interpretation of the data the following results of Anthropometric measurements which shows significant enhancement in body weight in which „t‟ value is 4.02 which is statistically significant at the 0.01 level. B.M.I measurement „t‟ value is 2.94 which is significant at 0.05 level. Chest circumference "t" value is 4.38 is statistically significant at 0.01 level. Abdominal circumference „t‟ value is 4.16 which is significant at 0.01 level. Thigh circumference „t‟ value is 8.70 which is significant at 0.01 level. Triceps skin fold „t‟ value is 3.26 which is significant at 0.05 level. Sub scapula skin fold „t‟ value is 4.98 which is significant at 0.01 level. Whereas the analysis of the data reveals the mean gain in Height measurement „t‟ value is .16 which is not significant at 0.05 level.
That means the selected Aerobic training programme did not shows significant effect on Height. The analysis of data reveals that the experimental group has improved in the body Weight, B.M.I, Chest circumference, and abdominal circumferences, Thigh circumference, Triceps skin fold, Sub scapula skin fold, Thigh skin fold. Further in case of Height the experimental group scores shows significant improvement in mean between pre and post test (Table No 2 Height „t‟ value 2.91). But not shows significant improvement in Table No.3 (Height "t' value .26). Therefore statistically concluded that the treatment given to Height is partially successful.
On the basis of the above discussion, the results can be concluded as: Eight week training of Aerobic exercise imparted in this study was effective in reducing excessive body weight, effective in reducing Chest circumference, abdominal circumference, and thigh circumference , effective in reducing Triceps, sub scapula, and Thigh skin fold.
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