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20/07/2019 08:24:02 pm

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There is a general and popular saying that "Health is Wealth". The following brief description of how physical education has been reflected in various policy and curricular documents may contribute to a better understanding of the status of physical education in our school curriculum.

Report of the Secondary Education Commission (1952-53)

The commission that was appointed to survey the problems of secondary state of school education as a whole made the following points with regard to Health and Physical Education.

Health Education

 *     Physical fitness and health education assume an importance that no state can afford to neglect. The emphasis so far has been more on the academic type of education without proper consideration being given to physical welfare and the maintenance of proper standards for the pupils.

*     Students should not only appreciate the value of health education but also learn the ways in which they can effectively maintain and improve their health.

*     All students should be subjected to thorough medical examination and activities for promoting and safeguarding health should find a place throughout the school prgramme.

*     School health service should be extended to the community, as the health of school children is determined not only during the hours spent at school but also, and more so, the time spent at homes and in their neighborhood.

*     Very little is being done in educational institutions in respect of the malnutrition of children.

Physical Education

*     Various activities should be planned to develop physical and mental health of students, cultivate recreational interests and skills and promote the spirit of team work, sportsmanship and respect for others.

*     Physical education is much more than drill or a series of regulated exercises. It includes all forms of physical activities and games which promote the development of body and mind.

*     The school should go to the community and seek its assistance in the furtherance of the programme of physical education.

*     Unless all teachers of the school do not participate in activities along with the physical instructor, physical education will not be a success.

Education Commission (1964-66) popularly known as Kothari Commission

*     Physical education not only aims at physical fitness but also has educational values. It contributes to physical efficiency, mental alertness and the development of certain qualities like perseverance, team spirit, leadership and obedience to rules.

*     It should include development exercises, rhythmic activities, sports and games, outing activities and group handling activities.

*     At the pre-primary and early primary stages, the syllabus should aim at developing among children the mastery over basic skills, such as walking properly, running, throwing, etc.

*     At the secondary stage, the syllabus may contain sports, games and athletics in their standard form.

After the primary stage, the syllabus should be planned separately for boys and girls. Rhythmic activities will have an appeal for girls, less strenuous games, such as badminton, throw-ball, etc. are also popular among them.

National policy on Education (N.P.E) -1986

The National Policy of Education -1986, has very rightly mentioned that "Sports and Physical Education are an integral part of the learning process, and well be included in the evaluation of performance. A nation-wide infrastructure for physical education, Sports and games will be built into the educational edifice" (cited on 8.20, NPE-1986).

The infrastructure will consist of play fields, equipment, coaches and teachers of physical education as a part of the school improvement programme. Available open spaces in urban areas will be reserved for playground, if necessary by legislation. Efforts will be made to establish sports institutions and hostels where specialized attention will be given to sports activities and sports related studies, along with normal education. Appropriate encouragement will be given to those talented in sports and games. Due stress will be laid on indigenous traditional games. As a system which promotes on integrated development of body and mind, Yoga will receive special attention. Efforts will be made to Introduce Yoga in all schools: to this end, it will be introduced in teacher training course. (cited on 8.21, NPE-1986).

While re-emphasizing the above points the programme of Action (POA) has mentioned that action in the following areas will be necessary to implement the policy objectives of NPE -1986:

i)    In deciding the curriculum load the need to allocate sufficient time to sports and physical education which the NPE, 1986 holds as an integral of the learning process, should be kept in mind.

ii)   Physical education and Yoga should be introduced for at least 45 minutes per day, preferably just after assembly. iii) Approved games should be included in the school time-table for at least two periods in a week. iv) Special incentives will need to be given to students who perform well in sports and games.

v)   Special incentives may be considered for subject teachers who perform extra duty in conducting classes in physical education, Yoga, sports and games.

vi) The basic equipment, such as Footballs and Volleyballs may be provided to each school, similarly, some amount of contingency may be provided to each school.

vii) A scheme for creation and improvement of playgrounds should be taken up on a phased basis under Jawahar Rojgar Yojana (JRY) and Neheru Yuvak Kendras (NYK).

viii) An intensive and extensive programme of teachers training to equip all subject teachers with necessary skills to impart training in physical education, games and Yoga will be necessary.

ix) The present programme to train and recruit physical education teachers for high schools should be expanded. x) New schools may be established/recognized only if playgrounds are available.

xi)   A comprehensive system of inter-school tournaments and championships in select disciplines should be introduced over a period of time. This system should culminate in a National School Championship.

xii) Special cash awards to winning schools and a special system of incentives for successful athletes also needs to be introduced.  


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